Maya Extrusion and Buildings

Maya is an animation and modeling program used to create three-dimensional ( 3-D ), full-motion effects. Maya incorporates the natural laws of physics to control the behaviour of virtual objects in computer animation.

Screen Shot 2017-09-27 at 10.28.22Screen Shot 2017-09-27 at 10.55.58

You can add polygons to an existing mesh using the Extrude feature (Edit Mesh > Extrude). You can extrude polygon faces, edges, or vertices. For example, when you extrude a face on a polygon mesh the existing face telescopes inwards or outwards as it creates new connecting faces on the sides of the extrusion.

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Retro Game Development

Game Name: Retro Punk

Game Synopsis-

Genre- Sci-Fi, Futuristic, Cyberpunk, Platformer, SideScroller

Run Fight or Die

Set in the year 3035 in future cyber punk; where the government control the people. People made of half mech and human. A virus made by the government has been used to gain access to there citizens. It is used to corrupt the city and turning everyone against each other. Its a war zone 24/7.

You are placed in the city of Tokyo; you play the non corrupted half human/mech character Kio. He has been around since the year 2505 he has not aged due to him being half mechanical. Kio has learnt how to improve him self so the mechanical parts of his body are more powerful than the other mech’s. He has gained these skills through a underground organisation “Kira”. This is the group you will work along side to stop the bad people of this city and get the anti-virus out to free the citizens.

Although it’t not going to be that easy, there are people looking for this organisation and Kio himself due to a high bounty on there head. He has to blend in with his surrounding by either salvaging amour from the mechs or searching the city dumps for scrap parts to improve himself . This allowing him to be unseen by the Government some of the mechs owned by them have special amour which enables them to become invisible and conceal every part of there body. There are a variety of mechs that government has Technologically Engineered. Some are currently unknown as they have not been yet assigned to a job; but Akiio, and his team have gained access to some databases so they are one step ahead.










Based Design-

City- Tokyo

Why Tokyo? Tokyo is a central point for the creation of cyberpunk. The city it self is very bright and luminous which relates and complies with my colour scheme. Japan is also technologically advanced compared to other first world countries due to there superior sight in innovation and development.

Tokyo Moodboard.jpg
Art Style-



I will be using very Neon colour’s such as Purples, Reds and Yellows. The colour’s show a visual representation of futuristic and Sci-Fi.







Combat System –

Turned based with HP, mainly martial arts and simple weaponry such as blades, swords and katana’s. Each weapon has variants and deals different damage based on character stats as well as weapon.



-Government Name -NC

-Good Organisation (Kira)

Main Character-

Kio- He has the ability to hack into majority of systems and upgrade parts of his body to adapt to certain situations. He has a great understanding of martial arts and has learnt the art of free running which enables him to escape in certain situations if needed.

Powers- Can collect orbs around the map to unleash an ultimate that creates an EMP that will stun mechs for 10 seconds.

Amour- His legs and arms are mechanical so movement and strength is greatly improved. He has an on board computer and AI to help him with survival. This is accessed though the Pixel he wears on his face.

Objective- Defeat the NC and upload the anti-virus to the main frame.




Enemy (NC) Synths

Synths- They go by the name synths.






Stat Designs

Environmental Design

Set 1

Set 2

Set 3

Set 4


App Design

What is a mobile application. A mobile application (app) is a software developed and designed to run on a smart device, such as computers, TV’s, phones and tablets.

The history of the mobile app began with the first mobile phone which needed some basic software to make and receive calls. Maybe its not as modern as our up to date applications but it was the beginning.

The world’s first mobile phone call was made on April 3, 1973, when Martin Cooper, a senior engineer at Motorola, called a rival telecommunications company and informed them he was speaking via a mobile phone. The phone Cooper used, if you could call it that, weighed a staggering 1.1kg and measured in at 228.6x127x44.4mm. With this prototype device, you got 30 minutes of talk-time and it took around 10 hours to charge.


The first recognisable apps came with Psion’s range of handheld computers – mostly PDAs – that used the EPOC operating system. First released in the early 90s the sixteen bit machines (SIBO) which ran EPOC allowed users programmes such as a word processor, database, spreadsheet and diary. Later models in the range, running a 32-bit OS, would come with up to 2MB RAM and allow users to add additional apps via software packs (or via download if you were lucky enough to own a modem).


As we progress on in to the 20th century in 2007 Apple created the iPhone since then it has been the most iconic piece of technology in our time.


iOS 1

The granddaddy of them all, iOS 1 was an instant game changer. Though not a new technology, the original iPhone introduced multitouch to the masses and forever changed the way we interact with electronic devices.

As you can tell from the photo above, the basics of the iOS UI hasn’t changed much at all. There’s still a grid system of icons, with a dock of frequently used icons populating the bottom of the display. While it perhaps seems crazy today, note that two of the original iOS icons weren’t Apple apps, but gateways to Google. Of course, I’m talking about YouTube and Google Maps.




iOS 2

When Apple released iOS 2 with the iPhone 3G back in July of 2008, mobile apps would never be the same. With iOS 2, Apple introduced its brand new App Store, a digital storefront that allowed anyone with a computer, an idea, and coding skills to put together an app and sell it for a price point of their choosing. While it all seems like common sense now, remember that the quality of mobile apps back in 2008 was abysmal, with no room for small-time developers to even participate.

Today, the App Store has grown beyond anyone’s wildest imagination, currently boasting more than 1.5 million apps and generating billions in profits for both Apple and developers. As of January 2016, the App Store has generated approximately $40 billion for developers. Apple has also said that the creation of the App Store is responsible for creating more than 1.9 million jobs in the U.S. alone. If we factor in Europe and China, Apple claims that the total number of App Store related jobs rises to about 4.5 million.





iOS 3

With iOS 3, Apple finally introduced a number of software features that were conspicuously missing from previous versions, namely support for cut, copy, and paste. iOS 3 also introduced support for MMS, tethering, spotlight search functionality, and support for in-app purchases. It’s also worth noting that the home screen with iOS 3 was slightly altered and came with two new home screen apps, a “Voice Memos” app and a “Compass” app.

Remember this old gem?

Additionally, Apple with iOS 3 finally changed the name of its “SMS” app to Messages and added the “Find My iPhone” feature.

One final tidbit is that iOS 3 increased the number of supported home screen pages from 9 to 11.




iOS 4

iOS 4 marked huge step forward for Apple’s mobile OS. The update, which was released in June of 2010, was chock full of compelling and exciting new features. Of course, one of flagship features of iOS 4 – and the iPhone 4 – was support for FaceTime video chatting.

iOS 4 also saw the introduction of system-wide multitasking support, the ability to put apps into folders, the rollout of iBooks and GameCenter, enhanced search functionality, and last but not least, the ability to zoom in when taking photos. Note that the dock design in iOS 4 was slightly altered as well.

multitasking, custom wall papers, unified inbox, ability to search messages.. AirPlay was in subsequent upgrades to iOS 4.

iOS 5

By the time iOS 5 was released in 2011, it was abundantly clear that Apple was facing some stiff competition from any number of ambitious handset manufacturers. With that in mind, it didn’t come as much of a surprise that iOS 5 was an incredibly ambitious release that packed in more than 200 new features.

In addition to a new notification center, iOS 5 saw the birth of iMessage, effectively enabling iPhone users to text via data as opposed to running up needlessly exorbitant texting bills. iOS 5 also saw the arrival of to new iOS stock apps, Reminders and Newsstand. Other notable iOS 5 features included Twitter integration, wireless syncing capabilities, and at long last, the ability to access the camera from the lock screen.

Over and above that, the flagship feature of iOS 5 was Siri, Apple’s take on an intelligent virtual assistant. Much like Apple Maps, the first incarnation of Siri was intriguing but ultimately left a lot to be desired.




iOS 6

With iOS 6, Apple officially kicked Google Maps to the curb and replaced it with Apple Maps. Famously, the rollout of Apple Maps was marked by frustrating bugs, erroneous directions, Salvador Dali inspired satellite photos, and even misplaced landmarks.

Still, the release of Apple Maps marked the first time that iOS users could take advantage of turn by turn directions as the iOS version of Google Maps frustratingly did not include that feature.

Another notable addition to iOS 6 was a new app called Passbook. Later renamed to Wallet, Passbook was, not too surprisingly, a virtual wallet that let users store airline tickets, coupons, movie tickets, and a few other items.

Other notable iOS 6 features included a redesigned App Store, the ability to reply to a call with a text message, a dedicated Podcasts app, panoramic photos, the ability to FaceTime over a cellular connection, and much improved Siri functionality. And seeing as how iOS 6 was released alongside the larger iPhone 6, the number of icons per row was increased from four to five.

Looking at the iOS 6 homescreen, you might also have noticed the conspicuous absence of the YouTube app.



iOS 7

iOS 7. Where does one even begin? iOS 7 represented a sea change not only for iOS, but also for Apple’s executive lineup. If you recall, Scott Forstall, the man responsible for every iteration of iOS up until iOS 6, was unceremoniously dismissed from the company in October of 2012 for refusing to take ownership of Apple’s Mapping problems. In his place, Tim Cook put Jony Ive in charge of the look and feel of Apple’s mobile OS.

With Ive at the helm, iOS 7 came with an entirely new look and feel, forgoing Forstall’s affinity for skeumorphic design with a flatter aesthetic. The green felt and leather stitchings that seemed to dominate some of Apple’s stock apps were completely redesigned.

But a new look and feel wasn’t all Apple had to offer. iOS 7 introduced us to the Control Center, a convenient way to quickly toggle a number of commonly used settings. Other new features introduced with iOS 7 included a revamped multitasking pane, the rollout of iTunes Radio, AirDrop, photo filters, burst photo mode, and new camera modes for fast switching between video and various photo modes.






iOS 8

By the time iOS 8 came along, most people had gotten used to iOS’ new design aesthetic championed by Jony Ive. As a result, Apple with iOS 8 was able to focus on adding a plethora of new features instead of spending time working on a UI redesign.

iOS 8 may not have had any killer features, so to speak, but it did add a number of small and nifty enhancements, including predictive keyboard typing with QuickType, the ability to send audio and video messages within iMessage, more advanced notifications, and more photo editing tools. iOS 8 also saw the introduction of both iCloud Drive and HealthKit.

Other notable features included time-lapse video, the ability to check battery usage by app, a camera timer, and more enhanced Spotlight functionality,



iOS 9

Apple came at iOS 9 with an entirely different strategy. Instead of lopping in as many features as possible, Apple’s iOS team worked on a smaller number of features and instead devoted more resources than usual towards improving the overall stability of the mobile OS.

Some of the more notable iOS 9 features included transit directions in Maps, a completely revamped Notes app, a nifty low-power mode for longer battery life, and always-on Siri functionality thanks to the iPhone 6s’ M9 motion coprocessor. iOS 9 also saw the introduction of a new systemwide font, San Francisco.

Also noteworthy is that the Passbook app was renamed to wallet and given a new icon, an appropriate change given the arrival of Apple Pay, Other new, albeit minor changes to the iOS home screen included a new Music app and a brand new News app.




iOS 10


iOS 11

StopMotion Animation


Stop-Motion animation is an animation that is uses and idolises life objects as a form of motion video. It is used by taking pictures in increments and moving a certain object that you are focusing on. You move the object bit by bit as you take pictures every time you move it; therefore it seems as if it is moving by itself.

Some forms of stop motion (Claymation, Flipbook, Pixilation Animation, Object Animation)

Variation Of Stop Motion

Stereoscopic stop motion

Go motion



Some famous claymation’s may be Wallace and gromit and Pingu.

Claymation goes as far back to the 1900s, but it was trademarked by Will Vinton in 1978. It is a form of animation, using clay or plasticine to create a scene, which can include the characters, backgrounds, props, etc. It takes a lot of time and effort, and requires patience. Claymation can be used in various motion productions.




Flip Book animation is one of my favourite types of stop motion. I think it is very unique as you have to create a sequence of animation via drawing. I believe it takes a real finesse to be able to create a good flip motion. Not many cooperate film animators have made a feature length flip book animation as it would take to long. Although there are a variety of people who create flip books dedicated to iconic people or movies.

For Example- Michael Jackson

Flip Book animation is also very creative within itself as there are terms called mechanical, alternative and photograph flip books which display a variety of animation through the style of flip book.

Alternative flip book style is anything aside from using a book to display the animation. These artist used t-shirts.


I believe the overall style of of flipbook animation can be very creative if you want it to be. From drawing on a book to it happening in real life. It then becomes a surreal production.





For my stop motion animation I got the later ‘P’. So I then decided to look at objects and animals that start with the letter ‘P’.

Pizza, Phoenix, Pineapple, Potato



This was my final Stop-Motion production.

Car Development HUD


Week One: Forza franchise/Need For Speed Research

Week Two- Logo/Colours Development

Week Three-More Research

Week Four- Development on digital platform and some final design in sketch

Week Five- Final development on digital platform


Race Track-

Race Track.png











Console Car Games, such as Xbox and PS4 have a variety of race games, I will be trying to concentrate on Forza and Need For Speed. As these two game are focused and are played by all race fans. They have the most unique HUD’s and UI in game therefore I will analyse and incorporate some styles into my own creation.Colours of teams/ names. Games like Mario Cart will have teams but through out racing games there are not normally teams as you are playing each other to compete for the win.

Car dashboard. There are a variety of ways that immersive simulator race games present the HUD. But through out race games they all have similar UI.

Teams/Colour- Reds(Viper) Blue(Widow) Yellow(Plague)

Back-Up- Logo Styles———

They all contain Lap, Place, Minimap, Times, Speedo, Times.


I decided to then have some logo development and creation so here are some of drawings then my final digital pieces. Creating a logo allows the team to stand out and be unique across to the other players and it can also be used to differentiate teams from one another.

I also wanted the colour to resemble the Logo for the teams so it made sense…

Need For Speed Rivals- There are two teams Cops and Racers. So there is two different styled UI to represent both teams.

Racers HUD (Need For Speed Rivals 2013)-

Top Hud.PNG

This  is the Heat and Speed Points which is indicted at the top of the screen. As need for speed is a street race game; they decided to incorporate cops into the game. So while being a racer you will earn heat while doing race or speeding or breaking the law… The (SP) is speed points you gain them by doing races and winning or out running the cops or drifting or stuff like close misses. Speed points are used to upgrade your car/purchase cars in game. Not many games are like this as they heavily focus on track racing, and this is why  I decided to use Need For Speed as an example.



This is the mini map which is located in the bottom left of the screen. A mini-map is used in a variety of games as it gives the player valued information which can enhance the gameplay. It can also be turned off for a more immersive experience. But it carries out a main value to players as in a race game it can often indicate where there is a new race; also display a limited amount of the track as the player moves as well as an alternative route.






This is the speedometer which on the right hand side of the screen. A speedo is valued asset to the overall HUD design in race games as it displays how fast the car/bike can go as well as top speed/ gear change/ boost/ energy in some games. But in Need For Speed it displays a acceleration counter and a mph speed, Turbo and a damage indicator. In Need For Speed during races the more drifts you do or close misses you gain more N20(Turbo) and when you pass through a gas station you repair you car. As during a race you would normally have the cops pursuit you and if they damage you enough the car will breakdown and you will loose the race but also SP.




This is your objectives and position as well as lap time which is on top right of screen. In race games it is expected to have a lap time so players know how quick they are driving  also displayed is the position so players can know if they are first or last. In Need For Speed it displays some objectives for you to complete this will give you extra points as well. Some times it will display previous lap times so you can see how quick your going compared to your last time its normally indicated by (+3.40) or (-2.68) .





Now as there is another side on Need For Speed- Rivals which is being cops the HUD slightly changes to fit the COPS it also indicates your special abilities such as your spikes and other weapons to disarm the racers. The only thing that really changes from a cop and a racer is the style so people can tell the difference between the two; also for a more immersive gameplay experience.




cops nfsw rival.jpg

Information Set- Is a particular system such as an algorithm that is built into a game. It recognises every movement of the player and decides what to do. Also information set is also a set of decision nodes that belong to the individual player; and any other player can not change that.


Real Car DashBoards-MoodBoard Of Car Dash.png

This is a mood-board I created so that I could have a visual representation of car dashboards; there are 2 car views from in game. 1 from need for speed and 1 from Forza so I could compare the style and placements to what I would want my style to be.

There is 3 futuristic styles in the mood-board as the game style I am aiming to achieve is futuristic.



This is one of the futuristic styles a lot of the colours they use is a light neon blue. I personally believe they use this colour in futuristic design as it looks most appealing and very sci-fi. When people think sci-fi they think future and aliens most of the time.


This is a first person view from Forza which presents the McLaren P1 which is a futuristic styled car. I like the layout of the first person view but compared to what I want to go for; I don’t believe it would look anything like this.


This is the 3rd person view of the HUD I put this into my mood board to give me an Idea of placement colour and style of how it would be viewed on screen.


There are a variety of ways the car dashboards can be displayed, here are some of my drawings.



Legal and Ethical

Some legal issues when developing a game is age rating. Pegi is the company who regulates what restrictions certain games should have. ( This is PEGI’s index where they show you what is allowed in games.



This is a very serious matter when developing a product in this case we are re-creating car dashboards. So I will have to take some things into consideration when finalising and creating my car dashboards to make sure it is not similar to any games or does not have a licensed car logo e.g BMW other wise it would be considered as plagiarism and I do not have the rights to use there logo in my game.


For instance there are positive and negative implication to a certain case. Such as if you get assaulted in public the implication for you are positive; decided wether you call the police or press charges against the attacker. They are positive because you are not loosing anything and everything is in your favour as long as you can provide the proof.

The implication would be negative if I stole a car logo such as BMW and placed it into my own game with permission I would be committing a crime. There for the implications would be negative because it is working against my favour.



Branding Company and Intellectual Property-

Sponsorships and Branding in video games. Many racers and cars have various branding to promote them selves. In track racing such as Nascar or Formula 1 the cars will have decals as well as that they will be provided by a company (Ferrari), and not to forget the tyres.








There are a variety of car sponsorships in racing here I have taken 1 F1, Nascar and GT race. Sponsorships are also placed into games such as Forza and Assetto Corsa and various other race games where they place branding.


The reason they use a lot of branding within video games is; it allows the developers to have a wider target base, and therefore creating more revenue for them as well as the company sponsoring them. Such as if a new Need For Speed Game comes out promoting Fanta on the car decals, people buying Fanta with (NFS) on the bottle some of the money will go towards (NFS). Overall its also helps there name get out there in real racing, although some times there can be false advertising which looks bad on both the driver and sponsorship. But overall in race games there tends to be a lot of promotion of games and products.

I will try to see if there is any available companies that I could apply for a sponsorship that I could incorporate into my game/design.

Team Sponsorship- 

Formula 1 games have a lot of team sponsorship such as UPS or Michelin tyers. They have team sponsorships so they can be more widley promoted to other age groups and audinces.






Style Format/ Layout With Sketches-

While trying to come up with my own design I decided to try and focus on a specific style as apposed to the everyday casual racers. I decided to go for a futuristic style HUD/UI such a Tron style.

So I had to consider colours the Art style of cars the animation of everything in game. So I looked at some games that displayed a futuristic UI or HUD in various games. This would allow me to help with colour choice style and much more.




Final HUD


I looked at a lot of car hud’s when creating my final piece so I could make it as realistic and futuristic as I could.

Speedometer-4.jpg3 Colour HUD.pngFinal.png


2D Animation Assignment


Research the meaning of “Hope”. Hope implies the meaning of wishing for something to good to happen for yourself. Such as you can hope to pass and upcoming exam. But im looking at in a design perspective with that in mind I have looked at a variety of Artsy projects with the connotation of hope.

Art- This is an art piece by Anita SKF in deviant art

Hope By Anita.jpg

This is what many people associate with the word hope “the light at the end of the tunnel” this also can resemble freedom. In this case hope indiates the person had been trapped and she/he would hope to be free so they can see the light. Seeing light at the end of the tunnel ensures there is still hope left.

Design- For a design piece I have decided to look at Obama’s campaign posters. (2008)


This poster was iconic to people in Amercia and around the world as Obama was the first black president in the United States. This poster was designed very well as the American colours were used alongside with Obama and the text saying “HOPE”. This intern saying that you should have hope in Obama although he is the first Black president; it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t have faith in him, and expect have hope in him.

Film-The Shawshank Redemption


Literature- Hope in the Dark – Rebecca Solnit


Animation Style

There are many ways animation is presented in this day and age from CGI to CEL animation. Im going to be covering all the types of animation along with films that show the use of style.

  1. Traditional animation

Traditional animation is also known as CEL animation, it is a very old from of animation that is still used sometimes in todays day and age. I illustrator and animator will draw every single frame to create a scene/sequence. This type of animation can also be as simple as a flip book with sequential drawings then when flipped it creates a scene.

  1. 2D Vector based animation

2D animation has been recently getting more popular as time goes on. More people are starting to get into the industry due to being how easy it is and accesible to the software. Common animations such as dragon ball z and pepper pig.

  1. 3D computer animation

3D  is very unique and is refrerred to as CGI (Computer Generated Image) it can be compared to as usign as a puppet as once you 3d character is created in a programme such as cinema 4d or Maya.

  1. Motion graphics and Typography and Animated Logos (Kinetic Typography)

Motion graphics is almost like frame by frame animation, although it has more of a digital aspect to it, so most of the work is done on computer as apposed to drawing. It is digital work which is used to create a motion picture which is combined with audio. It is primarily used for adverts and youtube. This is an advert from Olympics at Rio. Many of motion graphics can be as simple 2d art or 3d. There is also analogue forms of motion graphics (Thaumatrope, Phenakistoscope, Stroboscope, Zoetrope, Praxinoscope, flip-book)


Thaumatrope is a optical illusion toy that was used in the 19th Century. It was a disk with 2 images on both sides with a string attached. When you spin, it will create the illusion of the images changing.


Phenakistoscope is compared to a gif now days. It was one of the first forms of a fluent animation which was always on a loop.

Stroboscope also known as a strobe. There is a mechanical version and a Electronic they both do the same things. It is a instrument that is used to make a cyclically object to be moving in slow motion or even stationary. The way this is achieved is by using light and a disk with holes which is then rotated or even vibrated to create a animation.

This is typography or kinetic typo. It is a virtual form of art. You can draw or use computer programmes to create word which move. This Typography is from the movie Kick Ass.


Stop motion Claymation

Stop motion is animation but uses objects to create an animation. You move an object from one place to another but before it get to the final place you want it to be; you move it in small increment and take a photo each time you move it. By the time it you have done you put all the photos together and it will look like an animation.

Legal and Ethical

  • I’m fully aware and have made sure that all of my work does not break any of the legal acts that would stop me from creating my product, therefore I must follow these rules.​
  • Looking through our ideas to make sure, that its not discriminating against a certain group of people, religion, race and sex. ​
  • I will be asking people questionnaires about my ideas to make sure it is not offensive to anyone.  ​
  • Not to collect any misleading facts. ​
  • Making sure that the animation is fine for all ages and does’t offend anyone.​
  • Regulatory Body BBFC (British Board of Film Classification). Make sure all my work comply with there rules and doesn’t offend anyone.”” I will have to make sure that all of my work checks off with them so it complies with all the laws and is certified for a specific age group.


12 Basic Principles Of Animation

-Squash and Stretch. This action gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as it moves. Also squash and stretch is useful in animating dialogue and doing facial expressions. How extreme the use of squash and stretch is, depends on what is required in animating the scene. Usually it’s broader in a short style of picture and subtler in a feature. It is used in all forms of character animation from a bouncing ball to the body weight of a person walking. This is the most important element you will be required to master and will be used often.

-Anticipation. This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform, such as, starting to run, jump or change expression. A dancer does not just leap off the floor. A backwards motion occurs before the forward action is executed. The backward motion is the anticipation. A comic effect can be done by not using anticipation after a series of gags that used anticipation. Almost all real action has major or minor anticipation such as a pitcher’s wind-up or a golfers’ back swing. Feature animation is often less broad than short animation unless a scene requires it to develop a characters personality.

-Staging. This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform, such as, starting to run, jump or change expression. A dancer does not just leap off the floor. A backwards motion occurs before the forward action is executed. The backward motion is the anticipation. A comic effect can be done by not using anticipation after a series of gags that used anticipation. Almost all real action has major or minor anticipation such as a pitcher’s wind-up or a golfers’ back swing. Feature animation is often less broad than short animation unless a scene requires it to develop a characters personality.

-Straight Ahead And Pose To Pose Animation. Straight ahead animation starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. You can lose size, volume, and proportions with this method, but it does have spontaneity and freshness. Fast, wild action scenes are done this way. Pose to Pose is more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. Size, volumes, and proportions are controlled better this way, as is the action. The lead animator will turn charting and keys over to his assistant. An assistant can be better used with this method so that the animator doesn’t have to draw every drawing in a scene. An animator can do more scenes this way and concentrate on the planning of the animation. Many scenes use a bit of both methods of animation.

-Follow Through And Overlapping Action. When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, coat tails or a dress, floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). Nothing stops all at once. This is follow through. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while his clothes or hair continues forward. The character is going in a new direction, to be followed, a number of frames later, by his clothes in the new direction. “DRAG,” in animation, for example, would be when Goofy starts to run, but his head, ears, upper body, and clothes do not keep up with his legs. In features, this type of action is done more subtly. Example: When Snow White starts to dance, her dress does not begin to move with her immediately but catches up a few frames later. Long hair and animal tail will also be handled in the same manner. Timing becomes critical to the effectiveness of drag and the overlapping action.

-Slow Out And Slow In. As action starts, we have more drawings near the starting pose, one or two in the middle, and more drawings near the next pose. Fewer drawings make the action faster and more drawings make the action slower. Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action, making it more life-like. For a gag action, we may omit some slow-out or slow-ins for shock appeal or the surprise element. This will give more snap to the scene.

-Arcs. All actions, with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device), follow an arc or slightly circular path. This is especially true of the human figure and the action of animals. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow. Think of natural movements in the terms of a pendulum swinging. All arm movement, head turns and even eye movements are executed on an arcs.

-Secondary Action. This action adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation, supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action. Example: A character is angrily walking toward another character. The walk is forceful, aggressive, and forward leaning. The leg action is just short of a stomping walk. The secondary action is a few strong gestures of the arms working with the walk. Also, the possibility of dialogue being delivered at the same time with tilts and turns of the head to accentuate the walk and dialogue, but not so much as to distract from the walk action. All of these actions should work together in support of one another. Think of the walk as the primary action and arm swings, head bounce and all other actions of the body as secondary or supporting action.

-Timing. Expertise in timing comes best with experience and personal experimentation, using the trial and error method in refining technique. The basics are: more drawings between poses slow and smooth the action. Fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper. A variety of slow and fast timing within a scene adds texture and interest to the movement. Most animation is done on twos (one drawing photographed on two frames of film) or on ones (one drawing photographed on each frame of film). Twos are used most of the time, and ones are used during camera moves such as trucks, pans and occasionally for subtle and quick dialogue animation. Also, there is timing in the acting of a character to establish mood, emotion, and reaction to another character or to a situation. Studying movement of actors and performers on stage and in films is useful when animating human or animal characters. This frame by frame examination of film footage will aid you in understanding timing for animation. This is a great way to learn from the others.

-Exaggeration. Exaggeration is not extreme distortion of a drawing or extremely broad, violent action all the time. Its like a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actions. Action traced from live action film can be accurate, but stiff and mechanical. In feature animation, a character must move more broadly to look natural. The same is true of facial expressions, but the action should not be as broad as in a short cartoon style. Exaggeration in a walk or an eye movement or even a head turn will give your film more appeal. Use good taste and common sense to keep from becoming too theatrical and excessively animated.

-Solid Drawing. The basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. The way you draw cartoons, you draw in the classical sense, using pencil sketches and drawings for reproduction of life. You transform these into colour and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life. Three dimensional is movement in space. The fourth dimension is movement in time.

-Appeal. A live performer has charisma. An animated character has appeal. Appealing animation does not mean just being cute and cuddly. All characters have to have appeal whether they are heroic, villainous, comic or cute. Appeal, as you will use it, includes an easy to read design, clear drawing, and personality development that will capture and involve the audience’s interest. Early cartoons were basically a series of gags strung together on a main theme. Over the years, the artists have learned that to produce a feature there was a need for story continuity, character development and a higher quality of artwork throughout the entire production. Like all forms of story telling, the feature has to appeal to the mind as well as to the eye.

Bibliography( “Used this site to get information on 12 Principles of Animation”

A Variety of animation’s I looked at. 

Movie- Manga Style (5 Centimeters Per Second)

An animation made by Makoto Shinkai I chose this as apposed to all the other anime/manga styled productions becuase it has one of the most developed art style and characters. So with that in mind I’m going to incorperate some of the stylistic options from his productions in mine. Maybe with a more simplistic style to it as this would work well with my story idea.


Story Development

The Door- About a man who has been diagnosed with a terminal illness and he is placed with the doors that he walks through; to remind him the good parts of his life, then at the end he realises there is still hope and no to give up.

Camera angle style/ First person/ shoulder/ head view/ side view.

*Hope will find you at the end.

Mono- About a boy who had been through some though times with his sister. There parents had died before they knew who they were. This harsh people had been taken care for them until someone comes and takes the boy sister away. In the future when he grows up he is still looking for her and eventually finds her.

City- A city that is heavily controlled by the goverment with strict laws alongside with coruption. A 19 year old who is with a group of other people try to avoide these rules and defy the corrupt people of the city. But he finds out some people are good in the govement but are or forced to work due to other bad people.

Epidemic- A fatal virus takes over this city , a free runner kid who has been trying to survive eventually gets his hand on a cure. He has to dispurse the cure on top of the highest building in his city for everything to be reverted to normal. He uses the rest of the cure which is given to other runners to do the same as him in there city in which hope is brought back.

Pulse- A Man who has been through a lot of depression through out his whole life, is currently struck upon another matter in his life. A loved one in his life is currently in hospital in a coma, his mother went trough the same thing back 2 years ago and as time went on it got better. Until now…

The Final Story

My final idea is Pulse. I chose this as it can be applied to our daily lives and society and he has a good story and space for good character development and story.

Character Development- I will be using a variety of programmes and sketches to develop my characters. They will have a front, back and side view. They will also have a variety of facial expressions.

Some of the character models which are not in focus or main characters will be very simple and will have little no detail for a simplistic art style.

Sketches/Artwork/Character Development

This is a variety of drawings that I done to help me create my final piece.




These are just some of the sketches I done with the final story and a variety of the others.

Stage Development

The stage development was a big part of the full animation as it set the scene. So when creating the stages and I had to consider the story so it would flow as the story progressed. These are some of the scene I made in photoshop by using a variety of layers and mask.

Colour Choice

4_2_principles of design and animation_Colour.jpg4_1_principles of design and animation_Colour.jpg

Colours have hundreds of meanings, but they can also have a singular, vivid meaning. Blue and black can symbolise any number of things, but comparing the two can denote day and night. Similarly, Red can say “no”, “sell”, “bad”, and “stop”

With this in mind I decided to add this to the creation of my animation with soft tones, so it would fit in with the whole persona/story. As it would not make any sense if I used a lot of black in the scenes as the story is supposed to be HOPE. Which symbolises colours such as yellow, blue and green. These colours also resemble day and happiness therefore I used a lot of these colours in my project.



My project is titled Pulse, the way the name came around was with the whole idea of being in a coma is there is no pulse; hence the name pulse. The genre is a short animation portraying the word hope. The average time I was aiming for is 1 minute, the final production came to 1 Minute 07 seconds. For my target audience its more of a target group that I am targeting, as I want my work to help people through tough times. But I had a base range of age that I wanted to work to which was 13-30 females and males; as everyone goes through a loss of a loved one. The pysographics and social economics of people who have had a family member to be in a coma is 2/3 which can affect young people the most. Some of the social behaviours of some one who has someone in a coma would be they would research information about (What happens in a coma, they would also research how to to deal with a loved one who is in a coma). There is very little pysographic information for my product as if can apply to anyone of a certain age, occupation, lifestyle, gender, race and religion. As my product is to draw hope for people.

In the beginning of my story its a introduction to the city and a young boy who is going to his mother’s gravestone as it has been a year since she has passed, and now his fiancee is in a coma so he goes to the graveyard to speak to his deceased mother. The middle of the story is his fiancee who is in hospital the man decides to walk his way over to see her and he sits in the chair for a long time and takes her hand, hoping she would say something.The end of the story is the heart rate machine where there is no pulse, but then a pulse comes alive in his fiancee. Then they walk of into the sunset as she has recovered from a tragic event.

The topic is to be hopefull in any given situation and put up with the worst of times and never give up. The key events are the grave yard, hospital and the final scene in the sunset.

My main character is named Seth, he is aged 22, and is male. He has had a rough life he never knew his father as he passed in the war. Then his mother recently passed and his fiancee is in hospital. He is also going through finacial issues and problems with moving job to job so he can be on a stable income to provide for his family. His fiancee named Mary, who is a female aged 22. She is currently in hospital.

My camera movement is very limtited, as apposed to my scenes and colours that have been used, as well as transitions. The mise en scene is progressed with the whole story which start of the story is very dark and as the story progresses it becomes more lighter to express the symbolism of hope and a good ending as in the start it is very sad.

The sound is very in sync with the whole story as it starts of slow and mellowdramatic and as the story progresses it becomes more strong with vocals as his fiancee has came out of a coma, which could symbolise that she is alive. I used this very specific song as it feels very sad and lonley until thew vocals come in which makes my story 100x time better.

I decided to choose this idea over all my other ideas, as the whole point of creating the story is was to display the and symbolise the meaning of hope. Therefore I decided to put my self into a situation of where people still believe in hope of something good to happen. Most people wish for hope is mainly in a catastrophic situation.

I done a questionnaire to ask people when they feel as if the have the feeling of hope. Many people said they hope that  something is achieved or good things happen in the future.

I will be using a computer and paper and pencils to create my final animation. The pencil and papers will be used to sketch out all my work. The computer will be for final work.

Contingency plan.

I will come across many issues such as designing the stages and animating the whole scene together. To overcome these issues I decided to make my scenes very easy to animate. Such as designing the whole scene in photoshop and the object I wanted to move would be a whole new layer therefore all I would need to do is move the object across the X or Y axis and add timestamps so It would be animated.

When I considered my animation for tv usage or online I had to think about the reproductions if I didn’t take steps to prevent my work being unethical. So I researched BBFC(British Board Of Film Classification) and complied with the regulations for age restrictions and what I am allowed to show. Then I also and to make sure my music was copyright free so then I got into contact with a youtuber who post copyright free music and emailed asking wether I can use this piece in my animation. I also considered how some people may mistake a character looking like themselves or looking like another character; so I had to disclose that :”If any of the characters in the animation looks like you or from another animations this is simply coincidental.” I also had to make sure what I was condoning was the right message and was moraly correct. As the story was about Hope and a women in a coma I had to make sure the animation had displayed that to an extent where as it did not offend anyone. I took the precaution of you being not able to see the characters faces in the end so it would be unclear as to whom it may be.

I considered budget into my workload as when creating a production you need to consider the programmes and items you need to complete your work.

Computer(Provided by school) Average computer £400

Adobe Suite £16.44 a month for the whole adobe suite.

Word  you can use the online version for free

Touchpad(You may need one for drawing on detail inside photoshop) £34

Book/Pencils(Provided by school)

But because I had most of these items I didn’t need to include a budget into my schedule of creating my animation.





My first thoughts after finishing my animation was how well the story and scenes flow and work well together. I also thought what if I used a different programme to edit and create scenes. I used photoshop and after effects to create this so I thought what if I done it all on illustrator and after effects.

I thought the story was effective and explained it the way I wanted with this in mind I asked a couple of people to watch it and give me some input on what they thought.

Macchay”I believe the story was about a women in a coma and a loved one is scared and is waiting for her to be okay.”

Kamal”I really like the colours used throughout the story, they are really soft tones which has a hidden meaning the story as it progresses the colours become more vibrant and the story becomes less dark.”

I also try to make the story appealing to people who inspire the ideology of hope as everyone looking for hope is in a bad, dark place therefore I tried to inspire them with this story and to never give up and push all the negative out of their lives.

I also had to consider my audience; but I wanted the story to be relevant to hope. So I try to aim for a target as apposed to a specific age group. So the idea that I had was perfect for that. I could target anyone that was looking for hope.

After finishing my animation I decided to get feedback from a variety of people to find out how many people liked my animation and how I could have improved it.


With the feedback it help me out to understand wether my story was clear and with I wanted to

I would have liked to improve the walking animation and maybe the overall art style of the Animation. With the feedback I got I will like to use it in the future with an other animation that I decide to make. I personally feel the feed back will help me to improve the current animation I made. So with this in mind I decided to improved it in small ways to make it.

But the overall journey when making the animation really helped me to open my eyes and understand more about the whole development of an animation; so therefore I can be able to create my own in the future by using all this work here to help make progression in the areas I am weak.


Mark Mario Kart Huds Research


This is the original image we were tasked to re-create. I decided to make mine in photoshop. We were focused on the HUD element of this design so I started of for looking for a font. After browsing on the internet I came across a font which looked relatively similar to the one they used in the game.

PipeDream. Mario Text.PNG

Shortly After I  created the fonts for all the text on screen.




The layer style was copied from the first one I made so there was no need for extra editing, as it would have wasted time. For the ‘1st’ I used photoshop’s built in 3D visualiser that allowed it to look more alike the orginal game. Also I could have added a shadow to the image as apposed to using the 3D tool but that would not have looked as good. Also I want to keep the image intact and looking authentic as possible so by doing these steps with shortcuts it allowed me to do that.


After that I recreated the track on right side of the screen. This was simply done by using the pen tool and tracing over the map. There are a variety of ways such as using the brush tool or the number 8 and distorting it. But I used the pen tool as it’s the easiest and can almost recreate anything you want.



Then I started working on the boxes for the characters I decided to simply use the shape tool in comparison to the pen tool; it was way easier as all  I had to do was create a square rougly around the size of the boxes from mario. I then started looking for chaacters. I decided to use Amercian Presidents and Hoodini.



For the speedo boxes, I also used the pen tool as there was no shape like that. I made one of the boxes and just copied and pasted them until there were enough. Then I edited the colour of each one. There was no simplier was to accomplish all of this. I decided to use photoshop as apposed to any other software, as I am used to the interface of photshop alongside with all the tools; this allowed me to create a almost perfect copy of the mario HUD.



Mario HUD.png


This is the very first Mario Kart game, which was release in 1992 developed by Nintendo for the SNES (Super Nintendo Entertainment System). This was the very first in the series.

As we can se the hud and design is very simplistic and very low resolution it was running at a 16bit. The colours are very basic along side with HUD.

We have an action and a permanent HUD. The action one is the lights which start before the race; the permanent hud is the time, coin and laps as well as the map.


This is Mario Kart 64 which was brought out in 1996 for the Nintendo 64 it was the second of the Karts as we can see; there is a big improvement firstly the graphics have been rendered into 3d sprites this allowing for a more immersive experience.

The permanent HUDS have had a big step up here as we are on a new platform so that has allowed the developers to add a lot more friendly UI such as the left it shows the players and character they are on the left and shows the place there are in. It also actively changes when some one moves places. We also have one the top screen the power up which will roll when you pick up a power up as you go through the lap. We also have the race track on the bottom right indicating where you are and how far you are from everyone, and we still have the time in the top left.

I personally believe this is where nintendo took the right step forward in there games as the graphics and style looks visually nice and very subtle the game changer was 3d style and for the technology they had at the time it is very unique to its whole series.


This game was created for the Gameboy Advanced which is a portable gaming system, the game was released in 2001 and shortly released on the game cube in 2003.

Art Drawings/Sketches Dinosaurs 

In out sketch lesson we learnt about angles and shading and how light can effect the way we see things. 

So we had to draw dinosaurs in different angles to see how the light effects out drawings and how we would learn to shade. 
I try to focus on the top and the back of the dinosaur as this where colour didn’t come in as much so I tried to shade these parts in more that the others.

After Effects Week 1 Rocket

In tutorial of After Effects we learnt the basic use of key frames and making compostions. We got set out to create a simple compostions of a Rocket coming into frame and moving around. This was simply done by edting the X and Y postiton of the rocket and it was an animation once played back.


I took these steps as they were the easiest compared to any other. I used a pre made image from google as apposed to creating my own out of the shape tool.

Poster U4/12

The history of printing. printing-history-timeline_508899b88924a_w1500.jpg



Put my own created time line from illustrator and drawn out one.




Printing has been around for centuries it has recently been modernised for better use.

It started in China 618 to 906 it was called the ‘woodblock printing’ the term wood block idolises that the wood has been carved into and ink is placed on then pressed against the wall or paper to create the pattern that had been carved this from of printing is still used for very cultural reason in the world.

They used this method all around the world is seen as art style now to create very elegant pieces.




(Gutenberg Press 1440)

The original name given to this method of printing was called Gutenberg. It was named that because of the inventor Johannes Gutenberg had created it; it was called the Gutenberg press.

The gutenberg was used to apply pressure to a inked surface such as paper or cloth the invention however was just for printing text. But however it revolutionized our printing timeline.

Image result for gutenberg press



Metal Plates (Etching)-1452 

Shortly after the metal plates were introduced in Europe- 1452. Etching was the name that was given to this form of printing. It was done by using a strong acidic or mordant to cut and shape into a metal plate and fills the unprotected bits which then intern creates a design. There are methods that still exist in 2016 but we refer to it as engraving which is still the same form of etching but modernized it is used to carve things into metal objects such as cars, rings, necklace etc.

Etching was first originally developed by gold smiths and metal workers, this had allowed them to do various things with there creations. Such as it allowed them to decorate glasses, cups armour and plates etc. It was first started in Europe during the the late 14th century going into the 15th.

220px-Jacques_Callot.jpg Jacques Callot

Callot is an artist who reinvented etching into an art style. He had created a more stable recipe for etching materials buy using lute markers varnish as apposed the the wax formula. This had enabled the lines to be more deeply cut and allowed the plate printing to be lasted longer. It also reduced the acid from reaching parts of the ground and various other objects that it is not supposed to. This allowed etchers to highly sophisticated and detailed work.


Image result for Etching


Cylinder press 

Image result for Cylinder press

The cylinder press is where the images are printed on a cylinder. The printing can be done in large quantities you can use paper, card, cloth and plastic. The sheets are fed through the machine to  avoid jams and miss prints. The Rotary press was fist invented and adapted in 1843  by a man called William Nicholson.P08159_10.jpgWilliam was greatly admired for his fantastic art work/ posters. He started doing this with his brother in law; James Pryde. Gradually over the years they decided to carry on a create a wide array of posters. Which were favourited by the International Art Pictorial Poster Exhibition which had taken place in 1894 and 1896 in the Westminister Aquarium.




Digital Printing




The first ever paper copier to be made in 1959




3D Printers





Adolphe Mouron Cassandre


Paris-by-a.m-Cassandre.jpegAdolphe is a  french Ukrainian poster artist

Colours: The colours of this poster is very simple and resemble the old fashion times the artist Adolphe has various WW posters. So the colours are trying to resemble what france looks like.


Layout: I believe the text and logo is placed out perfectly as it’s right at the bottom not interrupting the main focus picture which is the arch way. This must have been a French idolised architecture building or structure hence he used it. Also I quite like the white doves/birds.

But the text used is very bold and has nice placing.


Text: Text is used to draw the onlookers eyes as it’s right at the bottom the purpose of the text is used to complement the actual picture itself because people would like to know what the picture is about then they will go about round looking for the text to find out what it’s about so the picture and text work well together. There is also about round stroke around the text ro give it a slight 3d look and also to stand out against the colour of the actual picture so it doesn’t blend in the well.







Swiss Styleswiss-style-02.png




Paul RandPaulRand-poster-against-war_3.jpgmy-neighbor-totoro-poster-variant-olly-moss-mondo.jpg80f8f9dd74d76f3ebc6b1caf1e9989e5.jpg50-posters-48.jpgMonteCarloLouisIcart.jpgWe-can-do-it-poster.jpg1668r.jpg













I firstly started by looking at various pictures of London and variety of architecture posters to gather some ideas. Once I had got some ideas I had created a mood-board of a variety of London buildings so that it could be my main image for the poster.Arch Moodboard copy.jpg

I decided to have one main focus image as this would allow for a lot of colours and improvements for the poster. Shortly after I started doing some sketches in book with patterns and main buildings.


Main Images- Shard


I decided to focus on the shard; because it’s a central building in London. Also it is very iconic which makes it a key attraction to tourist visiting. So I decided have this as one of my main picks for focus image. This building had a very a good

St Mary’s


Another commonly known building in London. This is known for the show The Apprentice. Also for being in the center of London.

Bishop Gate Tower



I then slowly started looking at what program I would be using so I used a combination of Photoshop and Illustrator, I done a mix of them so I could see the differences and edits I could do with my Ideas. I firstly started looking at filters and geometric patterns that I could make. I looked at building that I had chose, and looked at a various of geometric combination that fit well with my designs.

Both the programmes have various benefits of using the.

Photoshop- allows the use of a variety of image editing such as colour corrections and filters. This allows your photo to look the way you want it.

Also there are a variety of benefits in Photoshop firstly it is used for after editing an image so once you have finished your logo creation or idea in illustrator; you port it straight to Photoshop for after editing. This allows you to have a wide array of tools and edits for your expense.

The Shard 2.jpg


This is the first poster that I had created in Photoshop

I used various filters and edits to create this. The colour and font are just temporaily a test to see where the placement would be. The colour is there as it blends well with the edit of the shard. I used a picture that I had taken in London and edited it on photoshop to create this.



Black Shard.jpg


This is the second poster I made in Photoshop.









The Cut.jpg

This next poster was made in illustrator. I used a limited amount of techniques to create this poster





The Line In London.jpg

This final poster was designed using Photoshop and illustrator


Through out this whole unit I enjoyed using the programmes. Especially Photoshop this is because I have a lot of knowledge on the interface and the tools in Photoshop also there is a lot more variety of after editing which I prefer as apposed to illustrator.