Adobe Muse Introduction

Adobe muse is a application design program that can help the development of apps,

I have created a small test with a few screens as introduction of app design.  We made three screens with a home page, 2nd and a 3rd page. They all had an individual variable so you can differentiate each screen. I hyperlinked each screen to do a specific action.

For example the home screen button would take you to the first page and the second would take you to the third. Whole Design.PNGHyperlink Tool.PNGHypo.PNG


Introduction To Maya Rocket Ship


This is my rocket ship made with some simple shapes.


Just like many other programmes maya has its shortcuts which simplify editing and how effective you can achieve creating models. Its allows artist to be quick and efficient without having to sift through drop-downs.

c Snap to curves
x Snap to grids
v Snap to points
j Move, Rotate, Scale Tool snapping
Shft+J Move, Rotate, Scale Tool relative snapping

These are the most commonly used ones to scale and move objects which allows very little use of the mouse.

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This is the basic maya interface which you will see when you are modelling, the viewports is one of the most important utilities in maya.






A polygon mesh is used in 3d modeling compute graphics which is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that make up a specific model of a polyhedral object

Maya Robot

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This is Arnold.

Arnold is a advanced ray tracing renderer made for high end animation and visual effects in movies.

I started of by postioning Arnold into a place where suitable to be able to edit.

Then I had to create the lighting in the scene as is this is one of the most important tools in animation as it creates a sense of atmosphere and light in a specific scene and how it affects an object or chacacter. Without it scenes would appear dark and bland and will have no charestics that people will be able to notice when viewing the animation.

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Arnold has its own category in maya so this made it simple when doing the lighting for the robot. We used area light which was placed around the robot as that was our main focus.


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Then I had to increase the exposure which can be done by changing the attributes in the Area Light settings.


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Maya Moving Object

When moving an object in maya its much like any other programme that is used for editing and as long as it has a timeline add on moving an object is achievable.


Screen Shot 2017-11-15 at 09.16.09.pngSo we start of by creating some basic shapes and lining them up against each other so they form a line. We are using basic shapes as when it comes to animating something more complex it requires a lot more than moving it across an axis (x, y and z.)

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Once selected the object you want to move you want to make sure that you that you key the selected frame while having the first frame selected. This is very important otherwise your animation will begin on the frame that is currently selected.Screen Shot 2017-11-15 at 09.26.18.png

Once you have selected the frame you want the animation on, you need the keyframe in the movements especially from where the object starts from.

Screen Shot 2017-11-15 at 09.29.37.png You want to make sure you the workspace set to Animation as this will allow you to animate and move objects with easy as tools are more convenient for animators. Screen Shot 2017-11-15 at 09.29.18.pngAfter all of that you will get to a page a drop down box that looks like this, which will allow you to change the attributes of an object from an (x,y and z) stand point.  So as we are only wanting to move the object from point A to B we will only be changing the translate. So we stay with one but you can move any of the the translate axis to wherever you want your object to start from.

I started with 0 for ease. With the 1 selected on the time line we will want to right click on the (Translate X) axis and click Key All Keyable. So where ever the object is now it will remain there on one frame when we watch a play back.

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Then we want to select the frame where you want the animation to finish so I selected frame 100. Just like the last time we moved our X axis but you can move any to fill your needs. After moving we click Key All Keyable and click play.

Animating done.

App Design Brief


History Of Software and UI Development (Introduction)

What is a mobile application? A mobile application (app) is a software developed and designed to run on a smart device, such as computers, TV’s, phones and tablets.

The history of the mobile app began with the first mobile phone which needed some basic software to make and receive calls. Maybe it’s not as modern as our up to date applications but it was the beginning.

The world’s first mobile phone call was made on April 3, 1973, when Martin Cooper, a senior engineer at Motorola, called a rival telecommunications company and informed them he was speaking via a mobile phone. The phone Cooper used if you could call it that, weighed a staggering 1.1kg and measured in at 228.6x127x44.4mm. With this prototype device, you got 30 minutes of talk-time and it took around 10 hours to charge.


The first recognizable apps came with Psion’s range of handheld computers – mostly PDAs – that used the EPOC operating system. First released in the early 90s the sixteen-bit machines (SIBO) which ran EPOC allowed users programmes such as a word processor, database, spreadsheet, and dairy. Later models in the range, running a 32-bit OS, would come with up to 2MB RAM and allow users to add additional apps via software packs (or via download if you were lucky enough to own a modem).


As we progress on into the 20th century in 2007 Apple created the iPhone since then it has been the most iconic piece of technology in our time.


iOS 1

The granddaddy of them all, iOS 1 was an instant game changer. Though not a new technology, the original iPhone introduced multitouch to the masses and forever changed the way we interact with electronic devices.

As you can tell from the photo above, the basics of the iOS UI hasn’t changed much at all. There’s still a grid system of icons, with a dock of frequently used icons populating the bottom of the display. While it perhaps seems crazy today, note that two of the original iOS icons weren’t Apple apps, but gateways to Google. Of course, I’m talking about YouTube and Google Maps.



iOS 2

When Apple released iOS 2 with the iPhone 3G back in July of 2008, mobile apps would never be the same. With iOS 2, Apple introduced its brand new App Store, a digital storefront that allowed anyone with a computer, an idea, and coding skills to put together an app and sell it for a price point of their choosing. While it all seems like common sense now, remember that the quality of mobile apps back in 2008 was abysmal, with no room for small-time developers to even participate.

Today, the App Store has grown beyond anyone’s wildest imagination, currently boasting more than 1.5 million apps and generating billions in profits for both Apple and developers. As of January 2016, the App Store has generated approximately $40 billion for developers. Apple has also said that the creation of the App Store is responsible for creating more than 1.9 million jobs in the U.S. alone. If we factor in Europe and China, Apple claims that the total number of App Store related jobs rises to about 4.5 million.




iOS 3

With iOS 3, Apple finally introduced a number of software features that were conspicuously missing from previous versions, namely support for cut, copy, and paste. iOS 3 also introduced support for MMS, tethering, spotlight search functionality, and support for in-app purchases. It’s also worth noting that the home screen with iOS 3 was slightly altered and came with two new home screen apps, a “Voice Memos” app and a “Compass” app. Additionally, Apple’s iOS 3 finally changed the name of its “SMS” app to Messages and added the “Find My iPhone” feature.



iOS 4

iOS 4 marked huge step forward for Apple’s mobile OS. The update, which was released in June of 2010, was chock full of compelling and exciting new features. Of course, one of the flagship features of iOS 4 – and the iPhone 4 – was support for FaceTime video chatting.

iOS 4 also saw the introduction of system-wide multitasking support, the ability to put apps into folders, the rollout of iBooks and GameCenter, enhanced search functionality, and last but not least, the ability to zoom in when taking photos. Note that the dock design in iOS 4 was slightly altered as well.

multitasking, custom wallpapers, unified inbox, ability to search messages. AirPlay was in subsequent upgrades to iOS 4.

iOS 5

By the time iOS 5 was released in 2011, it was abundantly clear that Apple was facing some stiff competition from any number of ambitious handset manufacturers. With that in mind, it didn’t come as much of a surprise that iOS 5 was an incredibly ambitious release that packed in more than 200 new features.

In addition to a new notification center, iOS 5 saw the birth of iMessage, effectively enabling iPhone users to text via data as opposed to running up needlessly exorbitant texting bills. iOS 5 also saw the arrival of two new iOS stock apps, Reminders and Newsstand. Other notable iOS 5 features included Twitter integration, wireless syncing capabilities, and at long last, the ability to access the camera from the lock screen.

Over and above that, the flagship feature of iOS 5 was Siri, Apple’s take on an intelligent virtual assistant. Much like Apple Maps, the first incarnation of Siri was intriguing but ultimately left a lot to be desired.




iOS 6

With iOS 6, Apple officially kicked Google Maps to the curb and replaced it with Apple Maps. Famously, the rollout of Apple Maps was marked by frustrating bugs, erroneous directions, Salvador Dali inspired satellite photos and even misplaced landmarks.

Still, the release of Apple Maps marked the first time that iOS users could take advantage of turn by turn directions as the iOS version of Google Maps frustratingly did not include that feature.

Another notable addition to iOS 6 was a new app called Passbook. Later renamed to Wallet, Passbook was, not too surprisingly, a virtual wallet that let users store airline tickets, coupons, movie tickets, and a few other items.

Other notable iOS 6 features included a redesigned App Store, the ability to reply to a call with a text message, a dedicated Podcasts app, panoramic photos, the ability to FaceTime over a cellular connection, and much improved Siri functionality. And seeing as how iOS 6 was released alongside the larger iPhone 6, the number of icons per row was increased from four to five.

Looking at the iOS 6 home screen, you might also have noticed the conspicuous absence of the YouTube app.



iOS 7

iOS 7. Where does one even begin? iOS 7 represented a sea change not only for iOS, but also for Apple’s executive lineup. If you recall, Scott Forstall, the man responsible for every iteration of iOS up until iOS 6, was unceremoniously dismissed from the company in October of 2012 for refusing to take ownership of Apple’s Mapping problems. In his place, Tim Cook put Jony Ive in charge of the look and feel of Apple’s mobile OS.

iOS 7 came with an entirely new look and feel, forgoing Forstall’s affinity for skeuomorphic design with a flatter aesthetic. The green felt and leather stitchings that seemed to dominate some of Apple’s stock apps were completely redesigned.

But a new look and feel weren’t all Apple had to offer. iOS 7 introduced us to the Control Center, a convenient way to quickly toggle a number of commonly used settings. Other new features introduced with iOS 7 included a revamped multitasking pane, the rollout of iTunes Radio, AirDrop, photo filters, burst photo mode, and new camera modes for fast switching between video and various photo modes.


iOS 8

By the time iOS, 8 came along, most people had gotten used to iOS’ new design aesthetic championed by Jony Ive. As a result, Apple iOS 8 was able to focus on adding a plethora of new features instead of spending time working on a UI redesign.

iOS 8 may not have had any killer features, so to speak, but it did add a number of small and nifty enhancements, including predictive keyboard typing with QuickType, the ability to send audio and video messages within iMessage, more advanced notifications, and more photo editing tools. iOS 8 also saw the introduction of both iCloud Drive and HealthKit.

Other notable features included time-lapse video, the ability to check battery usage by app, a camera timer, and more enhanced Spotlight functionality,



iOS 9

Apple came to iOS 9 with an entirely different strategy. Instead of lopping in as many features as possible, Apple’s iOS team worked on a smaller number of features and instead devoted more resources than usual towards improving the overall stability of the mobile OS.

Some of the more notable iOS 9 features included transit directions in Maps, a completely revamped Notes app, a nifty low-power mode for longer battery life, and always-on Siri functionality thanks to the iPhone 6s’ M9 motion coprocessor. iOS 9 also saw the introduction of a new system-wide font, San Francisco.

Also noteworthy is that the Passbook app was renamed to the wallet and given a new icon, an appropriate change has given the arrival of Apple Pay, Other new, albeit minor changes to the iOS home screen included a new Music app and a brand new News app.




Applications (Task 1)

1St App

Landing Screen



User Experience


Target Audience


 why have CD-Roms and DVD players become obsolete?


The principle of logo design; there are a variety of things that make a good logo.


A logo has to be simple otherwise it could cause complication when distributing a product or trying to relate it to a user.

A simple logo allows for people to recognize it as well as being memorable and versatile at what it is promoting without being overcrowded.

tip16.jpgThe Twitter logo as one of the most iconic logo’s in our time, it resembles a lot; in terms of what the app does and the name. They both correlate the bird known as the songbird which essentially what Twitter is about. People use it to tweet about there life which then you can follow them.

The Definition of Twitter (of a bird) gives a call consisting of repeated light tremulous sounds.


The logo also has a cool blue colour, this denotes the feeling of freedom and peace. There could also be a hidden meaning such as the sky is blue and birds fly free. Much like Twitter, it is a place for people to express the mind with no repercussions.

Yet the simplicity of the logo can withhold such information, this is what a simplistic an good logo should be able to do.



2) Memorable

Much like having a simple logo you also need a memorable one otherwise, people will not be able to relate to your product or will forget the whole point of what you do.

A logo that majority of countries will remember is the Apple logo. It has revolutionized the way technology is in our time. By creating one of the first computers and going into creating music players. Apple has been around for a long time and many people have grown up with Apple products. The original logo was based on Issac Newton when the apple fell on his head and he came up with newtons law. Shortly after the logo had gone through some changes. The colours symbolize time the 1970’s was full of colourful events and a lot of retro designs. In 1995 technology was on the advance and Apple wanted to get futuristic colours to resemble their products. They messed around with this for a couple of years and in 2015 they decided to go back to the Monochrome logo for simplistic and design purposes. applelogo-700x268.png

The bite is very significant to the logo as when people have an apple; the first thing they normally do is take a bite of it. Since then many people can memorize the apple logo and recreate it from memory.



Some logos also have to age with time but still, hold the original meaning that it was intended for while being effective. The Coca-Cola logo does this very well the logo has not changed since it was made in 1886.

The history of the logo belongs to the creator John S Pemberton and Frank M Robinson who decided that “The two C’s will look good in advertising”.  The font they used was Spencerian script which was a popular font in there time. The logo had only changed once as a test for a year but other than that the logo has not changed since the creation of coke-cola and is one of the most timeless logos’s the still retains its history and purpose to this day. coke-logo.jpg

Compared to Coca-Cola other being Pepsi their logo has changed significantly from the day it was created. Coca-Cola has barely changed its design due to timeless creativity and empowerment that the brand name has gathered through the years.




4) Versatile


A logo should be versatile and effective and able to work across a multitude of platforms and mediums while retaining its main function. The logo should be able to work and horizontal and vertical faces and still be recognized by audiences. The Nike logo nails the design for this.


The women who designed it was Carolyn Davidson who got paid $35 to create a logo for Nike. In 1969, she met Phil Knight, then assisted the professor at PSU who would go on to found Blue Ribbon Sports, and, in turn, became Nike. Kight came up with the idea to kick off his own athletic brand and asked Davidson if she could create him a logo on the side of a shoe. She then designed the Nike Swoosh which rembles forward fluidity, which also indicates movement and speed. The logo kicked off from there.

It has had a major impact on the athletic people as well as clothing brands in our time due to its simplistic logo design it appeals to a lot of people of different ages and backgrounds. With the hidden meaning of moving forward. The logo can be placed in reverse, upside down, vertical and horizontal and people will still recognize it due its simplistic design and name that Nike has gathered over time. Not many logos can do this as they sometimes have writing or are too similar to other companies, Nike is one of many.





5) Appropriate

Lastly, a logo has to be appropriate and fit the context of what the company is trying to promote. For example, the Monster Logo is appropriate in context to what it sells. Which is an energy drink; it uses a Bright green with a logo of claw markings on the front this logo wouldn’t really work for a law firm.

It is also important that the logo tries to not show what it actually sells but is rather used for identification. So when I see the monster logo it can show a beast, energy, and sports. monster-energy-logo-on-white.png

Monster also supports many of the sports and e-sports activities. Which is appropriate to the logo design itself which resembles a beast. “You will have the energy of a beast of drinking this”

The shape of the Monster Energy Logo:

The Monster Energy drink logo imitates the claws of a monster that scratched a large ‘M’.

Colour of the Monster Energy Logo:

The neon green colour of the large ‘M’ against the black background demonstrates the kick people get after consuming a can of Monster energy drink.

Font of the Monster Energy Logo:

The custom-designed font of the Monster Energy logo provides an instant boost to the consumers and compels millions of people to indulge in its taste.



Logos need to work together to achieve all of this in one to be a great logo. But sometimes there are bad logos which are ineffective.


Bad Logos

Some bad logos are sometimes small things or small-time companies such as a local shop or a small time app. Such as these two they are promoting a satellite dish and dance classes but when you first see the logo it can be seen it shows something else. This is what a bad logo look like due to the fact it looks similar to the human anatomy which these companies are not about.






The Importance of having a logo is to be able to appeal to a wide audience so people will know what it means when they see it. Such as the logo can hold a lot of information about your company. In some cases, it can also be the selling point such as Nike or Addidas the Swoosh or Three Lines.  A good logo can bring identity to a certain company and gain a lot of fame just from design for instance when we see the FedEx Logo I think of postage due to the hidden arrow when can see indicating post or forward movement which is good for the company as they deliver and post.fedex2.gif



Good Applications-


Pinterest is like an online pinboard—mostly for collecting visual pieces of multimedia (mostly images) But before you jump on board with everyone else, you should first understand what Pinterest is all about.

You can create as many boards for your pins as you want, which is great for organization. For example, if you like collecting pictures of zoo animals, you can create a board and label it “Animals.” On the other hand, if you also like collecting recipes, you can create another board and label it “Recipes.”

Pinterest users interact with each other through liking, commenting, and repinning each other’s stuff.

unnamed.pngThis is the Pinterest Logo. It was designed with a typeface. The logo was supposed to entail retro design and creativity while being unique and having your own flow. The logo is really well done and the colours compliment each other while being very simple but noticeable and rememberable.





This is what you are prompted with after signing up to Pinterest which allows you to sign in with google or facebook. You will be asked to select some topics that interest you. By selecting topics it allows the app to recommend artist you will most likely love. This is also changed by your recently searched and followed. All of the art will appear on your home screen of the app which then allows you to swift through artwork and then you can add them to a pin.

I personally think they nailed the design of the app itself due to simplistic colours they used and how much white space there is. It helps to navigate around and look at what you like. It also resembles creativity due it being simple; as often the greatest pieces of art are simple.

I will use some of these designs when creating my app such as the logo due to my app being based on Pinterest it will closely follow the way it runs, in terms of the user journey.




Instagram is a social networking app made for sharing photos and videos from a smartphone.

Similar to Facebook or Twitter, everyone who creates an Instagram account has a profile and a news feed. When you post a photo or video on Instagram, it will be displayed on your profile. Other users who follow you will see your posts in their own feed. Likewise, you’ll see posts from other users whom you choose to follow.

Pretty straightforward, right? It’s like a simplified version of Facebook, with an emphasis on mobile use and visual sharing. Just like other social networks, you can interact with other users on Instagram by following them, being followed by them, commenting, liking, tagging and private messaging. You can even save the photos you see on Instagram.



This is the Instagram logo has changed with time due to it being such a popular app amongst social media fanatics. It used to be a place for photographers when it started kicking off; hence why the logo is a Polaroid camera. As we move on into the future they slightly bring it up to a modern-day camera. Only recently the had decided to dramatically move away from the old logo due to the fact the logo did not resemble the app in its current form.  The app is currently heavily focused on filters which change the colour of photo to make it look better. This is why the app is now colourful.



The Instagram app is used for a lot of things such as photo editing now and much more for the future generations and celebrities. As they normally like to upload and edit their photos show their life to many people who follow there Instagram











Bad Applications-



Afterschool App




Logo Development


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Maya Extrusion and Buildings

Maya is an animation and modeling program used to create three-dimensional ( 3-D ), full-motion effects. Maya incorporates the natural laws of physics to control the behaviour of virtual objects in computer animation.

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You can add polygons to an existing mesh using the Extrude feature (Edit Mesh > Extrude). You can extrude polygon faces, edges, or vertices. For example, when you extrude a face on a polygon mesh the existing face telescopes inwards or outwards as it creates new connecting faces on the sides of the extrusion.

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Retro Game Development

Game Research-

Street Fighter II: The World Warrior is a 1991 fighting game produced by Capcom originally released as an arcade game. A sequel to Street Fighter, Street Fighter II improved upon the many concepts introduced in the first game, including the use of command-based special moves and a six-button configuration, while offering players a selection of multiple playable characters, each with their own unique fighting style and special moves.

Street Fighter II is the main starting of the fighting game boom during the 1990s. Its success not only led to the production of several updated versions, each offering additional features and characters over previous versions, as well as many home versions, but the game itself also became the major trendsetter of fighting games. Some of the home versions of the Street Fighter II games have sold millions of copies, with the SNES port of the first Street Fighter II being Capcom’s best-selling consumer game of all-time as of 2008.

Street Fighter II comparison

Street Fighter II follows several other pre-released games to follow up on the story. The player engages opponents in one-on-one close quarter combat in a series of best-two-out-of-three matches. The objective of each round is to deplete the opponent’s vitality before the timer runs out. If both opponents knock each other out at the same time or the timer runs out with both fighters having an equal amount of vitality left, a double KO or draw game is declared and additional rounds will be played until sudden death.

Controller Logic

Like in the original, the game’s controls use a configuration of an eight-directional joystick and six attack buttons. The player uses the joystick to jump, crouch and move the character towards or away from the opponent, as well as to guard the character against an opponent’s attacks. There are three punch buttons and three kick buttons of differing strength and speed (Light, Medium, and Heavy). The player can perform a variety of basic moves in any position, including grabbing/throwing attacks, which were not featured in the original Street Fighter. Like in the original, the player can perform special moves by inputting a combination of directional and button-based commands.



Street Fighter II differs from the original due to the selection of multiple playable characters, each with their distinct fighting styles and special moves. Additionally, the player can also “cancel” during animation by performing another move, allowing for a combination of several basic and special moves. Both of these features would be expanded upon in subsequent installments.

The original character select screen. Often hailed as the most memorable select screen in the series.

The original version of Street Fighter II featured a roster of eight playable characters that could be selected by the player. Ryu and Ken, the main characters from the original Street Fighter, appeared along with six new characters from different nationalities:

  • E. Honda, a sumo wrestler from Japan, who wants to prove his fighting style.
  • Blanka, a beast-like man from Brazil, who, after a horrible discoloration, longs for a happier life.
  • Guile, a former special forces operative from the United States of America, seeking to avenge his best friend.
  • Chun-Li, a female martial artist and ICPO agent from China, who seeks to avenge her father.
  • Zangief, a pro wrestler and national hero from the USSR (present-day Russia).
  • Dhalsim, a wise Yogi from India, who seeks to help his village home.


The bosses in the game are:

  • Balrog (M. Bison in the Japanese version), an African-American boxer who was banned from formal tournaments.
  • Vega (Balrog in Japan), a vain and self-conceived Spanish claw-welding, ninja-like matador and top assassin.
  • Sagat, a one-eyed Muay Thai master from Thailand, and the former champion from the original Street Fighter.
  • M. Bison (Vega in Japan), a mysterious military commander and leader of a secret drug cartel and criminal organization.

Super Street Fighter II introduced four new characters

  • T. Hawk, an indigenous warrior from Mexico, whose ancestral homeland was taken from him by M. Bison, and seeks to reunite his people.
  • Cammy, a young member of the Secret Intelligence Service, known as Delta Red, from England with a mysterious past tied to M. Bison.
  • Fei-Long, a martial arts movie star from Hong Kong, who seeks to follow his own path of real-life martial arts.
  • Dee Jay, a kickboxing musician, and dancer from Jamaica, who is searching for inspiration for his new song.

The new characters were designed by Capcom’s internal artists in Japan, except for Dee Jay, whose original design was contributed to the game by American designer James Goddard. The character roster was now increased to sixteen, although the player still faced only twelve opponents, including the original four bosses, in the single-player tournament.

Super Street Fighter II Turbo featured another new character whom the player faced (upon meeting the required conditions) in the game’s final match instead of M. Bison. This character, who was unnamed within the actual game, was officially referred to as Gouki in Japan and as Akuma in the English version; the different names stuck in their respective territories. Akuma becomes selectable only by entering a special cheat code in the character selection screen.

Ultra Street Fighter II features two additional characters, both of whom first appeared in games released after Super Street Fighter II Turbo:

  • Evil Ryu, The malicious form Ryu takes on whenever he succumbs to the Satsui no Hado, previously seen in the Street Fighter Alpha series and the Street Fighter IV series.
  • Violent Ken, Ken under the control of M. Bison’s Psycho Power, previously seen in the crossover game, SNK vs. Capcom: SVC Chaos.


Mario N64

Super Mario 64  is the first three-dimensional platformer starring Mario and was released on the Nintendo 64 in 1997.At the time, it received widespread critical acclaim and has been often said to have defined its genre by being one of the first well-made games of its type. The game has since received a remake on the Nintendo DS in the form of Super Mario 64 DS. There was also going to be a sequel made, called Super Mario 64 2, but was canceled.


Stage 1- Princess Toadstool sends Mario to come to her castle to have a cake. When Mario arrives, he meets the Lakitu Bros, who are filming Mario. They go inside the castle and hear a familiar voice telling him to get out of the castle. Toad informs him that Bowser has kidnapped the princess again and is holding everyone hostage inside the castle walls.

Stage 2- He has also stolen the Power Stars and given them to his minions who are hiding in paintings spread all over the castle. Mario hops in the magical paintings and retrieves the Power Stars in order to defeat Bowser and save the Princess.

Stage 3-During the journey, Mario makes his way to more areas of the castle. When he finds out he has enough stars, he goes into Bowser’s final level. Once he makes his way through the long course, Mario sees Bowser and the two battle. When Mario defeats Bowser, he gives up and hands him a Giant Power Star, before he explodes. Mario grabs the star, and has been given the Wing Cap and flies away back to the castle.


The aim of the game is to collect enough Power Stars to progress to new, previously inaccessible areas of the castle. The primary goal is to collect enough to reach the final battle and save Princess Peach from Bowser. Each level, or “course”, holds six stars, plus one for collecting one hundred coins, which are obtained by completing a certain mission. The only clue to what this may be is in the star’s title, which is often cryptic. Aspects of each course vary with each star; beyond this, the player is given free reign in exploring each world.



Super Mario 64 has a variety of abilities to the series, allowing Mario to crawl, Ground Pound, punch and kick, backflip, side flip, wall-kick, long-jump, and slide, amongst others. These moves give the player a greater freedom than in past games as regards ways that Mario can be controlled, introducing the idea of there being a number of alternative routes to arrive at any one place. These are additionally used to perform actions such as pressing down switches as well as harming enemies or reaching high or distant places. The game allows the player to move Mario at different speeds. This allows Mario to walk slowly, which, as opposed to running, does not awaken sleeping enemies.


Caps are another aspect introduced to the gameplay in Super Mario 64, giving Mario the ability to fly, walk underwater or walk through certain barriers. They are turned on in short bursts and made available when activated with the switch associated with each one.

Game UI





Undertale is a role-playing game that utilizes many of the traditional mechanics normally seen in role-playing games but with a number of differences.

undertale-carrot-screen-03-ps4-us-13June2017.jpgThe battle system in Undertale is turn-based and seems to be heavily inspired by bullet-hell games – in particular, the Touhou series – where the protagonist’s SOUL, represented by a red heart, must avoid attacks unleashed by the opponent. As the game progresses, new elements are introduced, such as colored obstacles which require the soul to stay still or move through them, and some battles (including all the Boss battles) which change the way the heart is controlled. During the player’s turn, they have the opportunity to fight the opponent (involving quick-time input), perform actions that can change the opponent’s mood, use items, and show mercy by sparing the enemy, which ends the combat if the correct actions have been used. Killing an enemy will reward EXP and LV, but neither is given if they are successfully spared; GOLD is earned in both cases. The game has a large emphasis on the morality of killing and sparing the Monsters encountered, as the player’s actions determine what ending they will receive. Unlike traditional RPGs, it is possible to complete the game without ever killing a single monster.


The player, represented by the red heart icon, evading enemy attacks

The overworld mostly consists of puzzles that the player must solve to progress. Monster battles can also be seen as puzzles, requiring the right set of actions to resolve the fight peacefully. However, should the player decide to commit to murdering every monster they encounter, almost all the puzzles are disabled, and the player is required to grind to progress the game. Unlike traditional RPGs, grinding (under a neutral setting) and backtracking are not mandatory, and no side quests exist within the game.

The game is also known for its dialogue that is witty and humorous as well as having drastic alterations based on the player’s actions, and occasional breaking of the fourth wall. While killing/sparing results in notable dialogue changes, the most prominent alteration involves the manipulation of the game’s SAVE feature, particularly quitting or resetting the game.



Final Fantasy Series

Final Fantasy is a franchise of games that focuses on turned based combat and strategy

Game Name: Retro Punk

Game Synopsis-

Genre- Sci-Fi, Futuristic, Cyberpunk, Platformer, SideScroller

Run Fight or Die

Set in the year 3035 in future cyberpunk; where the government controls the people. People made of half mech and human. A virus made by the government has been used to gain access to their citizens. It is used to corrupt the city and turn everyone against each other. It’s a war zone 24/7.

You are placed in the city of Tokyo; you play the non-corrupted half human/mech character Kio. He has been around since the year 2505 he has not aged due to him being half mechanical. Kio has learned how to improve himself so the mechanical parts of his body are more powerful than the other mechs. He has gained these skills through an underground organization “Kira”. This is the group you will work alongside to stop the enemy of this city and get the anti-virus out to free the citizens.

Although it’s not going to be that easy, there are people looking for this organization and Kio himself due to a high bounty on their head. He has to blend in with his surrounding by either salvaging armor from the mechs or searching the city dumps for scrap parts to improve himself. This allowed him to be unseen by the Government some of the mechs owned by them have special armor which enables them to become invisible and conceal every part of their body. There are a variety of mechs that the government has Technologically Engineered. Some are currently unknown as they have not been yet assigned to a job, but Kio and his team have gained access to some databases so they are one step ahead.


My game will follow a certain point in time from an Animation named Ghost In A Shell, as well as it following the principle and design of (The Last Night)




Humans first knew the era of survival. Then they knew the era of work. Now they live in the era of leisure. Machines have surpassed human labour not only in strength, but in precision, intellect, and creativity. The fight for survival doesn’t mean food and water, but a purpose for living. People now define themselves by what they consume, not what they create.

The Last Night immerses you in the everyday life of Charlie, a second-class citizen living in a city brimming with augmentation and citizens living a gamified existence — none of which Charlie can experience himself due to a childhood accident. Apathetic and disheartened by the seemingly pointless world around him, Charlie is presented with an opportunity to take matters into his own hands. But at what risk?

Features & Highlights

Explore a breathtaking post-cyberpunk world
Roam freely across four varied and vibrant districts in a unique blend of 2D and 3D. Travel between areas with futuristic transportation and wind your way through dense crowds, drones, and unique characters — as long as you have the right to be there.

Immersive, revolutionary visuals
Experience a city of gorgeous pixel art, drawn and animated by hand combined with state-of-the-art compositing techniques and camera work. The result is an immersive aesthetic, modernizing the cinematic platformer genre.

Contextual stealth & gunplay
Each encounter in The Last Night is handcrafted to ensure variety and narrative progression. Use your acquired knowledge of the city to hide from drones, skirt around police, and escape dangerous situations – or people.

Real-time action dialogues
Draw your gun to intimidate or simply walk away while in the middle of dialogue. NPCs will stroll and chat alongside you rather than just stand around. They’ll even remember what you’ve said, night after night. Make sure to watch your mouth as much as your back.

A rich, personal narrative
Experience an unfiltered, futuristic society through the personal lens of Charlie, an ordinary low-class citizen – from the daily routine to extraordinary events. Live the stories of the city and its inhabitants in a world that may have you questioning modern life.

Dynamic, original soundtrack
Showing you a side of the city that the camera can’t, the soundtrack and audio design places you directly into the heart of the world. From the music playing in shops as you stroll by to hover-cars blasting above you and the stories overheard through open windows, everything has been crafted to enhance the visuals and fully immerse you in this living, breathing environment.

Due to the game heavily focusing on a futuristic concept music and character development play a big part in telling the story in a game like this. So with that in mind, I tried to use many of the concepts to create something unique and personal to the future of gaming.

I loosely follow the combat system of Undertale

Based Design-

City- Tokyo

Why Tokyo? Tokyo is a central point for the creation of cyberpunk. The city itself is very bright and luminous which relates and complies with my colour scheme. Japan is also technologically advanced compared to other first world countries due to there superior sight in innovation and development.

Tokyo Moodboard.jpg

Art Style-

I heavily focused on the style when coming up with the game as it had to be perfect to what I wanted it to be.

I looked and created a lot of cyberpunk/ futuristic characters with that in mind I had developed these sketches and concepts to then further create my characters in illustrator or Photoshop.

I decided to change due to the fact pixel art games are very unique in comparison to making a normal sprite character it felt too forward and modern; at the same time the game is based in the future but I wanted it to portray an old-time vibe.

I shortly realized after trying I wanted to make a pixel art styled game so I did some extensive research on character development and styles.

Test Character.PNG

Walk 1.PNG

v1 pink man.PNG


v2 pink man.PNGv3 pink man.PNGv4 pink man.PNG

Mr Hood.PNG



These are many of the designs I have created within Photoshop. I worked in a 500×500 workspace when making my characters and illustrations

Character Reference

These are some of the Character References I used which are used in personal developed games and designs.







I will be using very Neon colours such as Purples, Reds, and Yellows. The colour’s show a visual representation of futuristic and Sci-Fi.



These colours really help and resemble futuristic style that I am trying to approach. When I think of the future I normally connotate and denotate very vibrant colours and neon spectrum.

Combat System –

Turned based combat with HP, mainly martial arts and simple weaponry such as blades, swords, and katana. Each weapon has variants and deals different damage based on character stats as well as the weapon.


Heart-Based 3 hearts = 20HP (Health Points)

Individual Characters May Have Different HP.

All Of Kira Organisation




Health can be picked up at different checkpoints and be found on the map as you traverse and wipe enemies. The 3 Hearts display your life you have right now the more damage you take the more the heart will deplete and disappear.

LifeHeart Models.jpg




These are some of the scenes from Final Fantasy combat system which I follow to develop my combat style.

-Government Name -NC

-Good Organisation (Kira)

Main Character-

Kio- He has the ability to hack into the majority of systems and upgrade parts of his body to adapt to certain situations. He has a great understanding of martial arts and has learned the art of free running which enables him to escape in certain situations if needed.

Powers- Can collect orbs around the map to unleash an ultimate that creates an EMP that will stun mechs for 10 seconds.

Armour- His legs and arms are mechanical so movement and strength are greatly improved. He has an onboard computer and AI to help him with survival. This is accessed through the Pixel he wears on his face.

Objective- Defeat the NC and upload the anti-virus to the mainframe.

Weaknesses- He can be stunned with high voltage which many of the Synths can do

Strengths- Has greatly improved strength and agility.

Stats- 20HP (20 Health Points)



Enemy (NC) Synths

Synths- They go by the name synths. They are mechanically engineered robots to take and overrule the city by force.

Powers- Very limited to hand to hand combat but have guns as a backup to ensure survival.

Armour- The Synths whole body is mechanical so every aspect of there senses has been greatly improved. Due them being created in a lab they are being improved every time a battle goes on. To ensure NC always wins the fight.

Objective- Take over and rule cities. To have power and make everyone bend the knee.

Weaknesses- Can be stunned and has slow movement compared to other people.

Strengths- Has insane thinking speed, great strength and can jump high.

Stats- 15 HP


Weapon Design-

I follow a lot of melee based weapon combat and hand to hand.

Many of the weapons can do additional damage with various attributes and do different damage.

The colours can indicate it has a special attribute such as green with particles means it has poison effects which can deal additional damage over time to an enemy when hit.






Character Sprite Sheets-






Stat Designs

Environmental Design

Set 1MarkoftheNinja-Main.png

Set 2

Uncanny Valley 1.jpg




StopMotion Animation


Stop-Motion animation is an animation that is uses and idolises life objects as a form of motion video. It is used by taking pictures in increments and moving a certain object that you are focusing on. You move the object bit by bit as you take pictures every time you move it; therefore it seems as if it is moving by itself.

Some forms of stop motion (Claymation, Flipbook, Pixilation Animation, Object Animation)

Variation Of Stop Motion

Stereoscopic stop motion

Go motion



Some famous claymation’s may be Wallace and gromit and Pingu.

Claymation goes as far back to the 1900s, but it was trademarked by Will Vinton in 1978. It is a form of animation, using clay or plasticine to create a scene, which can include the characters, backgrounds, props, etc. It takes a lot of time and effort, and requires patience. Claymation can be used in various motion productions.




Flip Book animation is one of my favourite types of stop motion. I think it is very unique as you have to create a sequence of animation via drawing. I believe it takes a real finesse to be able to create a good flip motion. Not many cooperate film animators have made a feature length flip book animation as it would take to long. Although there are a variety of people who create flip books dedicated to iconic people or movies.

For Example- Michael Jackson

Flip Book animation is also very creative within itself as there are terms called mechanical, alternative and photograph flip books which display a variety of animation through the style of flip book.

Alternative flip book style is anything aside from using a book to display the animation. These artist used t-shirts.


I believe the overall style of of flipbook animation can be very creative if you want it to be. From drawing on a book to it happening in real life. It then becomes a surreal production.





For my stop motion animation I got the later ‘P’. So I then decided to look at objects and animals that start with the letter ‘P’.

Pizza, Phoenix, Pineapple, Potato



This was my final Stop-Motion production.

Car Development HUD


Week One: Forza franchise/Need For Speed Research

Week Two- Logo/Colours Development

Week Three-More Research

Week Four- Development on digital platform and some final design in sketch

Week Five- Final development on digital platform


Race Track-

Race Track.png











Console Car Games, such as Xbox and PS4 have a variety of race games, I will be trying to concentrate on Forza and Need For Speed. As these two game are focused and are played by all race fans. They have the most unique HUD’s and UI in game therefore I will analyse and incorporate some styles into my own creation.Colours of teams/ names. Games like Mario Cart will have teams but through out racing games there are not normally teams as you are playing each other to compete for the win.

Car dashboard. There are a variety of ways that immersive simulator race games present the HUD. But through out race games they all have similar UI.

Teams/Colour- Reds(Viper) Blue(Widow) Yellow(Plague)

Back-Up- Logo Styles———

They all contain Lap, Place, Minimap, Times, Speedo, Times.


I decided to then have some logo development and creation so here are some of drawings then my final digital pieces. Creating a logo allows the team to stand out and be unique across to the other players and it can also be used to differentiate teams from one another.

I also wanted the colour to resemble the Logo for the teams so it made sense…

Need For Speed Rivals- There are two teams Cops and Racers. So there is two different styled UI to represent both teams.

Racers HUD (Need For Speed Rivals 2013)-

Top Hud.PNG

This  is the Heat and Speed Points which is indicted at the top of the screen. As need for speed is a street race game; they decided to incorporate cops into the game. So while being a racer you will earn heat while doing race or speeding or breaking the law… The (SP) is speed points you gain them by doing races and winning or out running the cops or drifting or stuff like close misses. Speed points are used to upgrade your car/purchase cars in game. Not many games are like this as they heavily focus on track racing, and this is why  I decided to use Need For Speed as an example.



This is the mini map which is located in the bottom left of the screen. A mini-map is used in a variety of games as it gives the player valued information which can enhance the gameplay. It can also be turned off for a more immersive experience. But it carries out a main value to players as in a race game it can often indicate where there is a new race; also display a limited amount of the track as the player moves as well as an alternative route.






This is the speedometer which on the right hand side of the screen. A speedo is valued asset to the overall HUD design in race games as it displays how fast the car/bike can go as well as top speed/ gear change/ boost/ energy in some games. But in Need For Speed it displays a acceleration counter and a mph speed, Turbo and a damage indicator. In Need For Speed during races the more drifts you do or close misses you gain more N20(Turbo) and when you pass through a gas station you repair you car. As during a race you would normally have the cops pursuit you and if they damage you enough the car will breakdown and you will loose the race but also SP.




This is your objectives and position as well as lap time which is on top right of screen. In race games it is expected to have a lap time so players know how quick they are driving  also displayed is the position so players can know if they are first or last. In Need For Speed it displays some objectives for you to complete this will give you extra points as well. Some times it will display previous lap times so you can see how quick your going compared to your last time its normally indicated by (+3.40) or (-2.68) .





Now as there is another side on Need For Speed- Rivals which is being cops the HUD slightly changes to fit the COPS it also indicates your special abilities such as your spikes and other weapons to disarm the racers. The only thing that really changes from a cop and a racer is the style so people can tell the difference between the two; also for a more immersive gameplay experience.




cops nfsw rival.jpg

Information Set- Is a particular system such as an algorithm that is built into a game. It recognises every movement of the player and decides what to do. Also information set is also a set of decision nodes that belong to the individual player; and any other player can not change that.


Real Car DashBoards-MoodBoard Of Car Dash.png

This is a mood-board I created so that I could have a visual representation of car dashboards; there are 2 car views from in game. 1 from need for speed and 1 from Forza so I could compare the style and placements to what I would want my style to be.

There is 3 futuristic styles in the mood-board as the game style I am aiming to achieve is futuristic.



This is one of the futuristic styles a lot of the colours they use is a light neon blue. I personally believe they use this colour in futuristic design as it looks most appealing and very sci-fi. When people think sci-fi they think future and aliens most of the time.


This is a first person view from Forza which presents the McLaren P1 which is a futuristic styled car. I like the layout of the first person view but compared to what I want to go for; I don’t believe it would look anything like this.


This is the 3rd person view of the HUD I put this into my mood board to give me an Idea of placement colour and style of how it would be viewed on screen.


There are a variety of ways the car dashboards can be displayed, here are some of my drawings.



Legal and Ethical

Some legal issues when developing a game is age rating. Pegi is the company who regulates what restrictions certain games should have. ( This is PEGI’s index where they show you what is allowed in games.



This is a very serious matter when developing a product in this case we are re-creating car dashboards. So I will have to take some things into consideration when finalising and creating my car dashboards to make sure it is not similar to any games or does not have a licensed car logo e.g BMW other wise it would be considered as plagiarism and I do not have the rights to use there logo in my game.


For instance there are positive and negative implication to a certain case. Such as if you get assaulted in public the implication for you are positive; decided wether you call the police or press charges against the attacker. They are positive because you are not loosing anything and everything is in your favour as long as you can provide the proof.

The implication would be negative if I stole a car logo such as BMW and placed it into my own game with permission I would be committing a crime. There for the implications would be negative because it is working against my favour.



Branding Company and Intellectual Property-

Sponsorships and Branding in video games. Many racers and cars have various branding to promote them selves. In track racing such as Nascar or Formula 1 the cars will have decals as well as that they will be provided by a company (Ferrari), and not to forget the tyres.








There are a variety of car sponsorships in racing here I have taken 1 F1, Nascar and GT race. Sponsorships are also placed into games such as Forza and Assetto Corsa and various other race games where they place branding.


The reason they use a lot of branding within video games is; it allows the developers to have a wider target base, and therefore creating more revenue for them as well as the company sponsoring them. Such as if a new Need For Speed Game comes out promoting Fanta on the car decals, people buying Fanta with (NFS) on the bottle some of the money will go towards (NFS). Overall its also helps there name get out there in real racing, although some times there can be false advertising which looks bad on both the driver and sponsorship. But overall in race games there tends to be a lot of promotion of games and products.

I will try to see if there is any available companies that I could apply for a sponsorship that I could incorporate into my game/design.

Team Sponsorship- 

Formula 1 games have a lot of team sponsorship such as UPS or Michelin tyers. They have team sponsorships so they can be more widley promoted to other age groups and audinces.






Style Format/ Layout With Sketches-

While trying to come up with my own design I decided to try and focus on a specific style as apposed to the everyday casual racers. I decided to go for a futuristic style HUD/UI such a Tron style.

So I had to consider colours the Art style of cars the animation of everything in game. So I looked at some games that displayed a futuristic UI or HUD in various games. This would allow me to help with colour choice style and much more.




Final HUD


I looked at a lot of car hud’s when creating my final piece so I could make it as realistic and futuristic as I could.

Speedometer-4.jpg3 Colour HUD.pngFinal.png


2D Animation Assignment


Research the meaning of “Hope”. Hope implies the meaning of wishing for something to good to happen for yourself. Such as you can hope to pass and upcoming exam. But im looking at in a design perspective with that in mind I have looked at a variety of Artsy projects with the connotation of hope.

Art- This is an art piece by Anita SKF in deviant art

Hope By Anita.jpg

This is what many people associate with the word hope “the light at the end of the tunnel” this also can resemble freedom. In this case hope indiates the person had been trapped and she/he would hope to be free so they can see the light. Seeing light at the end of the tunnel ensures there is still hope left.

Design- For a design piece I have decided to look at Obama’s campaign posters. (2008)


This poster was iconic to people in Amercia and around the world as Obama was the first black president in the United States. This poster was designed very well as the American colours were used alongside with Obama and the text saying “HOPE”. This intern saying that you should have hope in Obama although he is the first Black president; it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t have faith in him, and expect have hope in him.

Film-The Shawshank Redemption


Literature- Hope in the Dark – Rebecca Solnit


Animation Style

There are many ways animation is presented in this day and age from CGI to CEL animation. Im going to be covering all the types of animation along with films that show the use of style.

  1. Traditional animation

Traditional animation is also known as CEL animation, it is a very old from of animation that is still used sometimes in todays day and age. I illustrator and animator will draw every single frame to create a scene/sequence. This type of animation can also be as simple as a flip book with sequential drawings then when flipped it creates a scene.

  1. 2D Vector based animation

2D animation has been recently getting more popular as time goes on. More people are starting to get into the industry due to being how easy it is and accesible to the software. Common animations such as dragon ball z and pepper pig.

  1. 3D computer animation

3D  is very unique and is refrerred to as CGI (Computer Generated Image) it can be compared to as usign as a puppet as once you 3d character is created in a programme such as cinema 4d or Maya.

  1. Motion graphics and Typography and Animated Logos (Kinetic Typography)

Motion graphics is almost like frame by frame animation, although it has more of a digital aspect to it, so most of the work is done on computer as apposed to drawing. It is digital work which is used to create a motion picture which is combined with audio. It is primarily used for adverts and youtube. This is an advert from Olympics at Rio. Many of motion graphics can be as simple 2d art or 3d. There is also analogue forms of motion graphics (Thaumatrope, Phenakistoscope, Stroboscope, Zoetrope, Praxinoscope, flip-book)


Thaumatrope is a optical illusion toy that was used in the 19th Century. It was a disk with 2 images on both sides with a string attached. When you spin, it will create the illusion of the images changing.


Phenakistoscope is compared to a gif now days. It was one of the first forms of a fluent animation which was always on a loop.

Stroboscope also known as a strobe. There is a mechanical version and a Electronic they both do the same things. It is a instrument that is used to make a cyclically object to be moving in slow motion or even stationary. The way this is achieved is by using light and a disk with holes which is then rotated or even vibrated to create a animation.

This is typography or kinetic typo. It is a virtual form of art. You can draw or use computer programmes to create word which move. This Typography is from the movie Kick Ass.


Stop motion Claymation

Stop motion is animation but uses objects to create an animation. You move an object from one place to another but before it get to the final place you want it to be; you move it in small increment and take a photo each time you move it. By the time it you have done you put all the photos together and it will look like an animation.

Legal and Ethical

  • I’m fully aware and have made sure that all of my work does not break any of the legal acts that would stop me from creating my product, therefore I must follow these rules.​
  • Looking through our ideas to make sure, that its not discriminating against a certain group of people, religion, race and sex. ​
  • I will be asking people questionnaires about my ideas to make sure it is not offensive to anyone.  ​
  • Not to collect any misleading facts. ​
  • Making sure that the animation is fine for all ages and does’t offend anyone.​
  • Regulatory Body BBFC (British Board of Film Classification). Make sure all my work comply with there rules and doesn’t offend anyone.”” I will have to make sure that all of my work checks off with them so it complies with all the laws and is certified for a specific age group.


12 Basic Principles Of Animation

-Squash and Stretch. This action gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as it moves. Also squash and stretch is useful in animating dialogue and doing facial expressions. How extreme the use of squash and stretch is, depends on what is required in animating the scene. Usually it’s broader in a short style of picture and subtler in a feature. It is used in all forms of character animation from a bouncing ball to the body weight of a person walking. This is the most important element you will be required to master and will be used often.

-Anticipation. This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform, such as, starting to run, jump or change expression. A dancer does not just leap off the floor. A backwards motion occurs before the forward action is executed. The backward motion is the anticipation. A comic effect can be done by not using anticipation after a series of gags that used anticipation. Almost all real action has major or minor anticipation such as a pitcher’s wind-up or a golfers’ back swing. Feature animation is often less broad than short animation unless a scene requires it to develop a characters personality.

-Staging. This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform, such as, starting to run, jump or change expression. A dancer does not just leap off the floor. A backwards motion occurs before the forward action is executed. The backward motion is the anticipation. A comic effect can be done by not using anticipation after a series of gags that used anticipation. Almost all real action has major or minor anticipation such as a pitcher’s wind-up or a golfers’ back swing. Feature animation is often less broad than short animation unless a scene requires it to develop a characters personality.

-Straight Ahead And Pose To Pose Animation. Straight ahead animation starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. You can lose size, volume, and proportions with this method, but it does have spontaneity and freshness. Fast, wild action scenes are done this way. Pose to Pose is more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. Size, volumes, and proportions are controlled better this way, as is the action. The lead animator will turn charting and keys over to his assistant. An assistant can be better used with this method so that the animator doesn’t have to draw every drawing in a scene. An animator can do more scenes this way and concentrate on the planning of the animation. Many scenes use a bit of both methods of animation.

-Follow Through And Overlapping Action. When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, coat tails or a dress, floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). Nothing stops all at once. This is follow through. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while his clothes or hair continues forward. The character is going in a new direction, to be followed, a number of frames later, by his clothes in the new direction. “DRAG,” in animation, for example, would be when Goofy starts to run, but his head, ears, upper body, and clothes do not keep up with his legs. In features, this type of action is done more subtly. Example: When Snow White starts to dance, her dress does not begin to move with her immediately but catches up a few frames later. Long hair and animal tail will also be handled in the same manner. Timing becomes critical to the effectiveness of drag and the overlapping action.

-Slow Out And Slow In. As action starts, we have more drawings near the starting pose, one or two in the middle, and more drawings near the next pose. Fewer drawings make the action faster and more drawings make the action slower. Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action, making it more life-like. For a gag action, we may omit some slow-out or slow-ins for shock appeal or the surprise element. This will give more snap to the scene.

-Arcs. All actions, with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device), follow an arc or slightly circular path. This is especially true of the human figure and the action of animals. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow. Think of natural movements in the terms of a pendulum swinging. All arm movement, head turns and even eye movements are executed on an arcs.

-Secondary Action. This action adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation, supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action. Example: A character is angrily walking toward another character. The walk is forceful, aggressive, and forward leaning. The leg action is just short of a stomping walk. The secondary action is a few strong gestures of the arms working with the walk. Also, the possibility of dialogue being delivered at the same time with tilts and turns of the head to accentuate the walk and dialogue, but not so much as to distract from the walk action. All of these actions should work together in support of one another. Think of the walk as the primary action and arm swings, head bounce and all other actions of the body as secondary or supporting action.

-Timing. Expertise in timing comes best with experience and personal experimentation, using the trial and error method in refining technique. The basics are: more drawings between poses slow and smooth the action. Fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper. A variety of slow and fast timing within a scene adds texture and interest to the movement. Most animation is done on twos (one drawing photographed on two frames of film) or on ones (one drawing photographed on each frame of film). Twos are used most of the time, and ones are used during camera moves such as trucks, pans and occasionally for subtle and quick dialogue animation. Also, there is timing in the acting of a character to establish mood, emotion, and reaction to another character or to a situation. Studying movement of actors and performers on stage and in films is useful when animating human or animal characters. This frame by frame examination of film footage will aid you in understanding timing for animation. This is a great way to learn from the others.

-Exaggeration. Exaggeration is not extreme distortion of a drawing or extremely broad, violent action all the time. Its like a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actions. Action traced from live action film can be accurate, but stiff and mechanical. In feature animation, a character must move more broadly to look natural. The same is true of facial expressions, but the action should not be as broad as in a short cartoon style. Exaggeration in a walk or an eye movement or even a head turn will give your film more appeal. Use good taste and common sense to keep from becoming too theatrical and excessively animated.

-Solid Drawing. The basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. The way you draw cartoons, you draw in the classical sense, using pencil sketches and drawings for reproduction of life. You transform these into colour and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life. Three dimensional is movement in space. The fourth dimension is movement in time.

-Appeal. A live performer has charisma. An animated character has appeal. Appealing animation does not mean just being cute and cuddly. All characters have to have appeal whether they are heroic, villainous, comic or cute. Appeal, as you will use it, includes an easy to read design, clear drawing, and personality development that will capture and involve the audience’s interest. Early cartoons were basically a series of gags strung together on a main theme. Over the years, the artists have learned that to produce a feature there was a need for story continuity, character development and a higher quality of artwork throughout the entire production. Like all forms of story telling, the feature has to appeal to the mind as well as to the eye.

Bibliography( “Used this site to get information on 12 Principles of Animation”

A Variety of animation’s I looked at. 

Movie- Manga Style (5 Centimeters Per Second)

An animation made by Makoto Shinkai I chose this as apposed to all the other anime/manga styled productions becuase it has one of the most developed art style and characters. So with that in mind I’m going to incorperate some of the stylistic options from his productions in mine. Maybe with a more simplistic style to it as this would work well with my story idea.


Story Development

The Door- About a man who has been diagnosed with a terminal illness and he is placed with the doors that he walks through; to remind him the good parts of his life, then at the end he realises there is still hope and no to give up.

Camera angle style/ First person/ shoulder/ head view/ side view.

*Hope will find you at the end.

Mono- About a boy who had been through some though times with his sister. There parents had died before they knew who they were. This harsh people had been taken care for them until someone comes and takes the boy sister away. In the future when he grows up he is still looking for her and eventually finds her.

City- A city that is heavily controlled by the goverment with strict laws alongside with coruption. A 19 year old who is with a group of other people try to avoide these rules and defy the corrupt people of the city. But he finds out some people are good in the govement but are or forced to work due to other bad people.

Epidemic- A fatal virus takes over this city , a free runner kid who has been trying to survive eventually gets his hand on a cure. He has to dispurse the cure on top of the highest building in his city for everything to be reverted to normal. He uses the rest of the cure which is given to other runners to do the same as him in there city in which hope is brought back.

Pulse- A Man who has been through a lot of depression through out his whole life, is currently struck upon another matter in his life. A loved one in his life is currently in hospital in a coma, his mother went trough the same thing back 2 years ago and as time went on it got better. Until now…

The Final Story

My final idea is Pulse. I chose this as it can be applied to our daily lives and society and he has a good story and space for good character development and story.

Character Development- I will be using a variety of programmes and sketches to develop my characters. They will have a front, back and side view. They will also have a variety of facial expressions.

Some of the character models which are not in focus or main characters will be very simple and will have little no detail for a simplistic art style.

Sketches/Artwork/Character Development

This is a variety of drawings that I done to help me create my final piece.




These are just some of the sketches I done with the final story and a variety of the others.

Stage Development

The stage development was a big part of the full animation as it set the scene. So when creating the stages and I had to consider the story so it would flow as the story progressed. These are some of the scene I made in photoshop by using a variety of layers and mask.

Colour Choice

4_2_principles of design and animation_Colour.jpg4_1_principles of design and animation_Colour.jpg

Colours have hundreds of meanings, but they can also have a singular, vivid meaning. Blue and black can symbolise any number of things, but comparing the two can denote day and night. Similarly, Red can say “no”, “sell”, “bad”, and “stop”

With this in mind I decided to add this to the creation of my animation with soft tones, so it would fit in with the whole persona/story. As it would not make any sense if I used a lot of black in the scenes as the story is supposed to be HOPE. Which symbolises colours such as yellow, blue and green. These colours also resemble day and happiness therefore I used a lot of these colours in my project.



My project is titled Pulse, the way the name came around was with the whole idea of being in a coma is there is no pulse; hence the name pulse. The genre is a short animation portraying the word hope. The average time I was aiming for is 1 minute, the final production came to 1 Minute 07 seconds. For my target audience its more of a target group that I am targeting, as I want my work to help people through tough times. But I had a base range of age that I wanted to work to which was 13-30 females and males; as everyone goes through a loss of a loved one. The pysographics and social economics of people who have had a family member to be in a coma is 2/3 which can affect young people the most. Some of the social behaviours of some one who has someone in a coma would be they would research information about (What happens in a coma, they would also research how to to deal with a loved one who is in a coma). There is very little pysographic information for my product as if can apply to anyone of a certain age, occupation, lifestyle, gender, race and religion. As my product is to draw hope for people.

In the beginning of my story its a introduction to the city and a young boy who is going to his mother’s gravestone as it has been a year since she has passed, and now his fiancee is in a coma so he goes to the graveyard to speak to his deceased mother. The middle of the story is his fiancee who is in hospital the man decides to walk his way over to see her and he sits in the chair for a long time and takes her hand, hoping she would say something.The end of the story is the heart rate machine where there is no pulse, but then a pulse comes alive in his fiancee. Then they walk of into the sunset as she has recovered from a tragic event.

The topic is to be hopefull in any given situation and put up with the worst of times and never give up. The key events are the grave yard, hospital and the final scene in the sunset.

My main character is named Seth, he is aged 22, and is male. He has had a rough life he never knew his father as he passed in the war. Then his mother recently passed and his fiancee is in hospital. He is also going through finacial issues and problems with moving job to job so he can be on a stable income to provide for his family. His fiancee named Mary, who is a female aged 22. She is currently in hospital.

My camera movement is very limtited, as apposed to my scenes and colours that have been used, as well as transitions. The mise en scene is progressed with the whole story which start of the story is very dark and as the story progresses it becomes more lighter to express the symbolism of hope and a good ending as in the start it is very sad.

The sound is very in sync with the whole story as it starts of slow and mellowdramatic and as the story progresses it becomes more strong with vocals as his fiancee has came out of a coma, which could symbolise that she is alive. I used this very specific song as it feels very sad and lonley until thew vocals come in which makes my story 100x time better.

I decided to choose this idea over all my other ideas, as the whole point of creating the story is was to display the and symbolise the meaning of hope. Therefore I decided to put my self into a situation of where people still believe in hope of something good to happen. Most people wish for hope is mainly in a catastrophic situation.

I done a questionnaire to ask people when they feel as if the have the feeling of hope. Many people said they hope that  something is achieved or good things happen in the future.

I will be using a computer and paper and pencils to create my final animation. The pencil and papers will be used to sketch out all my work. The computer will be for final work.

Contingency plan.

I will come across many issues such as designing the stages and animating the whole scene together. To overcome these issues I decided to make my scenes very easy to animate. Such as designing the whole scene in photoshop and the object I wanted to move would be a whole new layer therefore all I would need to do is move the object across the X or Y axis and add timestamps so It would be animated.

When I considered my animation for tv usage or online I had to think about the reproductions if I didn’t take steps to prevent my work being unethical. So I researched BBFC(British Board Of Film Classification) and complied with the regulations for age restrictions and what I am allowed to show. Then I also and to make sure my music was copyright free so then I got into contact with a youtuber who post copyright free music and emailed asking wether I can use this piece in my animation. I also considered how some people may mistake a character looking like themselves or looking like another character; so I had to disclose that :”If any of the characters in the animation looks like you or from another animations this is simply coincidental.” I also had to make sure what I was condoning was the right message and was moraly correct. As the story was about Hope and a women in a coma I had to make sure the animation had displayed that to an extent where as it did not offend anyone. I took the precaution of you being not able to see the characters faces in the end so it would be unclear as to whom it may be.

I considered budget into my workload as when creating a production you need to consider the programmes and items you need to complete your work.

Computer(Provided by school) Average computer £400

Adobe Suite £16.44 a month for the whole adobe suite.

Word  you can use the online version for free

Touchpad(You may need one for drawing on detail inside photoshop) £34

Book/Pencils(Provided by school)

But because I had most of these items I didn’t need to include a budget into my schedule of creating my animation.





My first thoughts after finishing my animation was how well the story and scenes flow and work well together. I also thought what if I used a different programme to edit and create scenes. I used photoshop and after effects to create this so I thought what if I done it all on illustrator and after effects.

I thought the story was effective and explained it the way I wanted with this in mind I asked a couple of people to watch it and give me some input on what they thought.

Macchay”I believe the story was about a women in a coma and a loved one is scared and is waiting for her to be okay.”

Kamal”I really like the colours used throughout the story, they are really soft tones which has a hidden meaning the story as it progresses the colours become more vibrant and the story becomes less dark.”

I also try to make the story appealing to people who inspire the ideology of hope as everyone looking for hope is in a bad, dark place therefore I tried to inspire them with this story and to never give up and push all the negative out of their lives.

I also had to consider my audience; but I wanted the story to be relevant to hope. So I try to aim for a target as apposed to a specific age group. So the idea that I had was perfect for that. I could target anyone that was looking for hope.

After finishing my animation I decided to get feedback from a variety of people to find out how many people liked my animation and how I could have improved it.


With the feedback it help me out to understand wether my story was clear and with I wanted to

I would have liked to improve the walking animation and maybe the overall art style of the Animation. With the feedback I got I will like to use it in the future with an other animation that I decide to make. I personally feel the feed back will help me to improve the current animation I made. So with this in mind I decided to improved it in small ways to make it.

But the overall journey when making the animation really helped me to open my eyes and understand more about the whole development of an animation; so therefore I can be able to create my own in the future by using all this work here to help make progression in the areas I am weak.